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Systemic interleukin-1 (IL-1) activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, an effect exerted through increased synthesis and secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) by parvicellular neurosecretory neurons. The site(s) and mechanism(s) through which circulating IL-1 may access central systems governing HPA axis output remain obscure. To(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The poor prognosis and minimally successful treatments of these tumors indicates a need to identify new therapeutic targets. Therapy resistance of GBMs is attributed to heterogeneity of the glioblastoma due to genetic alterations and functional subpopulations. Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) induces substance P (SP) gene expression in cultured rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) explants. In order to study the molecular mechanism of this action of IL-1, the presence of an interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) activity and the identity of an mRNA homologous to known IL-1R sequence was determined in SCG. The SP increase is blocked(More)
Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of human brain tumors. A characteristic of GBM is the marked presence of tumor infiltrated microglia/macrophages and lymphocytes. The goal of this study was directed toward understanding the role of the chemokine system CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 in the GL261 murine model of malignant(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be a potential new tool for HBV therapy. Given the high heterogeneity of HBV strains and the sensitivity towards sequences changes of siRNA, finding a potent siRNA inhibitor against the conservative site on the HBV(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor. Microglia/macrophages are found within human GBM where they likely promote tumor progression. We report that CCL5, CCR1, and CCR5 are expressed in glioblastoma. Individual deletion of CCR1 or CCR5 had little to no effect on survival of tumor bearing mice, or numbers of glioblastoma-infiltrated(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic virus capable of inducing severe neurological symptoms and death. No direct targeting antivirals are useful in the treatment of severe EV71 infection. Because of low toxicity and good specificity, monoclonal antibodies (MAb) are a potential candidate for the treatment of viral infections. Therefore, we developed an(More)
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