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Systemic interleukin-1 (IL-1) activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, an effect exerted through increased synthesis and secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) by parvicellular neurosecretory neurons. The site(s) and mechanism(s) through which circulating IL-1 may access central systems governing HPA axis output remain obscure. To(More)
The sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP) has been implicated as a second messenger in cell proliferation and survival. However, many of its biological effects are due to binding to unidentified receptors on the cell surface. SPP activated the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein)-coupled orphan receptor EDG-1,(More)
The endothelial-derived G-protein-coupled receptor EDG-1 is a high-affinity receptor for the bioactive lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP). In the present study, we constructed the EDG-1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimera to examine the dynamics and subcellular localization of SPP-EDG-1 interaction. SPP binds to EDG-1-GFP and transduces(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The poor prognosis and minimally successful treatments of these tumors indicates a need to identify new therapeutic targets. Therapy resistance of GBMs is attributed to heterogeneity of the glioblastoma due to genetic alterations and functional subpopulations. Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and(More)
BACKGROUND Thrombomodulin is an anticoagulant, endothelial-cell-membrane glycoprotein. A recombinant thrombomodulin domain containing 6 epidermal growth factor-like structures exhibits mitogenic activity. This study explored the novel angiogenic effects of the recombinant domain using in vitro and in vivo models. METHODS AND RESULTS Human recombinant(More)
Null mutations in the transient receptor potential (trp) gene eliminate the major, Ca2+-selective component of the light-sensitive conductance in Drosophila photoreceptors. Although it is the prototypical member of the TRP ion channel superfamily, conclusive evidence that TRP is a pore-forming channel subunit in vivo is lacking. We show here that mutating a(More)
Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of human brain tumors. A characteristic of GBM is the marked presence of tumor infiltrated microglia/macrophages and lymphocytes. The goal of this study was directed toward understanding the role of the chemokine system CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 in the GL261 murine model of malignant(More)
Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The poor prognosis and minimally successful treatments of GBM indicates a need to identify new therapeutic targets. In this study, we examined the role of CXCR3 in glioma progression using the GL261 murine model of malignant glioma. Intracranial GL261 tumors express CXCL9(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) induces substance P (SP) gene expression in cultured rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) explants. In order to study the molecular mechanism of this action of IL-1, the presence of an interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) activity and the identity of an mRNA homologous to known IL-1R sequence was determined in SCG. The SP increase is blocked(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection increases the risk of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be a potential new tool for HBV therapy. Given the high heterogeneity of HBV strains and the sensitivity towards sequences changes of siRNA, finding a potent siRNA inhibitor against the conservative site on the HBV(More)