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Androgen receptor (AR) coregulators: an overview.
AR demonstrates distinct differences in its interaction with coregulators from other steroid receptors due to differences in the functional interaction between AR domains, possibly resulting in alterations in the dynamic interactions between coregulator complexes. Expand
Androgen receptor in prostate cancer.
AR remains important in the development and progression of prostate cancer and the inhibition of AR activity through mechanisms in addition to androgen ablation, such as modulation of signal transduction pathways, may delay prostate cancer progression. Expand
The roles of androgen receptors and androgen-binding proteins in nongenomic androgen actions.
The biological activity of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone is thought to occur predominantly through binding to the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily thatExpand
Phosphorylation‐dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of androgen receptor by Akt require Mdm2 E3 ligase
It is shown that Akt and Mdm2 form a complex with AR and promote phosphorylation‐dependent AR ubiquitylation, resulting in AR degradation by the proteasome, a novel mechanism that provides insight into how AR is targeted for degradation. Expand
Subfertility and defective folliculogenesis in female mice lacking androgen receptor.
In vivo evidence is provided showing that AR plays an important role in female reproduction, with diminished endometrial growth in uteri in response to exogenous gonadotropins indicates that AR(-/-) females exhibit a luteal phase defect. Expand
Androgen receptor roles in spermatogenesis and fertility: lessons from testicular cell-specific androgen receptor knockout mice.
This review tries to clarify the useful information regarding how androgen/AR functions in individual cells of the testis by comparing the results of cell-specific AR knockout in germ cells, peritubular myoid cells, Leydig cells, and Sertoli cells mouse models that were generated by different laboratories to see the consequent defects in spermatogenesis due to AR loss in different testicular cell types in s permatogenesis. Expand
Generation and characterization of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice: An in vivo model for the study of androgen functions in selective tissues
The cre-lox ARKO mouse provides a much-needed in vivo animal model to study androgen functions in the selective androgen target tissues in female or male mice, suggesting potential defects in female fertility and/or ovulation. Expand
Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: Current status and future prospects
Patients with advanced disease clearly have a benefit from androgen deprivation‐based treatment for palliating their symptoms and for improving the quality of their lives, and novel treatment strategies that prolong the androgens‐dependent state and that are useful for androgen‐independent disease based on specific molecular mechanisms need to be identified. Expand
Acetylation of Androgen Receptor Enhances Coactivator Binding and Promotes Prostate Cancer Cell Growth
ABSTRACT Modification by acetylation occurs at ε-amino lysine residues of histones and transcription factors. Unlike phosphorylation, a direct link between transcription factor acetylation andExpand
Suppression Versus Induction of Androgen Receptor Functions by the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway in Prostate Cancer LNCaP Cells with Different Passage Numbers*
The results demonstrate that the PI3K/Akt pathway may have distinct mechanisms to modulate AR functions in various stages of prostate cancer cells and that a combined therapy of antiandrogens and anti-PI3K /Akt inhibitors may be worth considering as a future therapeutic approach to battle prostate cancer. Expand