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During development, precise temporal and spatial gradients are responsible for guiding axons to their appropriate targets. Within the developing ventral midbrain (VM) the cues that guide dopaminergic (DA) axons to their forebrain targets remain to be fully elucidated. Wnts are morphogens that have been identified as axon guidance molecules. Several Wnts are(More)
During development of the central nervous system, trophic, together with genetic, cues dictate the balance between cellular proliferation and differentiation. Subsequent to the birth of new neurons, additional intrinsic and extrinsic signals regulate the connectivity of these cells. While a number of regulators of ventral midbrain (VM) neurogenesis and(More)
Ryk is an atypical transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to play multiple roles in development through the modulation of Wnt signaling. Within the developing ventral midbrain (VM), Wnts have been shown to contribute to the proliferation, differentiation, and connectivity of dopamine (DA) neurons; however, the Wnt-related receptors(More)
Neural progenitor cells reside in many regions of the adult brain. However, their capacity to generate new neurons relies on stem cell niches, consisting of stem cells, niche support cells, and basal lamina, which maintain stem cells and direct their differentiation and migration into tissue structures. Neurospheres are thought to expose neural progenitor(More)
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