Chase B Hellmer

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KEY POINTS Using whole-cell clamp methods, we characterized the temporal coding in each type of OFF bipolar cell. We found that type 2 and 3a cells are transient, type 1 and 4 cells are sustained, and type 3b cells are intermediate. The light-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials in some types were rectified, suggesting that they provide inputs to the(More)
Retinal bipolar cells are second-order neurons in the visual system, which initiate multiple image feature-based neural streams. Among more than ten types of bipolar cells, type-5 cells are thought to play a role in motion detection pathways. Multiple subsets of type-5 cells have been reported; however, detailed characteristics of each subset have not yet(More)
The retina is the gateway to the visual system. To understand visual signal processing mechanisms, we investigate retinal neural network functions. Retinal neurons in the network comprise of numerous subtypes. More than 10 subtypes of bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and amacrine cells have been identified by morphological studies. Multiple subtypes of(More)
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its derivatives are broadly used in biomedical experiments for labeling particular cells or molecules. In the mouse retina, the light (~500 nm) used to excite GFP can also lead to photoreceptor bleaching (peak ~500 nm), which diminishes photoreceptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the retinal network. To overcome this(More)
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