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The New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) resistance mechanism in Enterobacteriaceae threatens to render serious Gram-negative infections untreatable. The NDM-1 enzyme hydrolyses all available penicillin, cephalosporin and carbapenem antibiotics, and is commonly accompanied by additional resistance mechanisms to multiple antibiotic classes. Initially(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of the first two cases of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in South Africa, one of which was associated with verified cefixime treatment failure. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two ESC-resistant N. gonorrhoeae isolates were cultured from the urethral discharge of(More)
Background. Ongoing surveillance of antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bacteria isolated in bloodstream infections guides empiric antibiotic therapy in neonatal sepsis. Methods. Sensitivity profiles of neonatal bacterial bloodstream infections in a tertiary hospital were reviewed between 01/06/2009 and 30/06/2010 . Results. There were 246 episodes of(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic disease due to shigellae is associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and other immunosuppressed states. We examined the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of systemic shigellosis in South Africa, where rates of HIV infection are high. METHODS From 2003 to 2009, 429 cases of invasive shigellosis were(More)
The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostics and drugs, more training in the field of medical(More)
BACKGROUND In 2015 South Africa established a national cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) screening policy targeted at HIV-infected patients with CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) counts <100 cells/ μl who are not yet on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Two screening strategies are included in national guidelines: reflex screening, where a CrAg test is performed on(More)
INTRODUCTION Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the aetiologies and frequencies of laboratory-confirmed fungal and bacterial meningitis among adults in a South African province with an 11% HIV prevalence, over 4 years. METHODS We conducted a retrospective, observational study of secondary laboratory data,(More)
INTRODUCTION Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the pre-PCV era in South(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW As HIV treatment programmes scale up to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals, care must be taken to start antiretroviral treatment safely in patients with advanced disease (CD4 counts <200 cells/μl) who are simultaneously at risk for opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Invasive fungal diseases pose a great(More)
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