Charlotte K Williams

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Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials, and its enhanced use would address several societal needs. Advances in genetics, biotechnology, process chemistry, and engineering are leading to a new manufacturing concept for converting renewable biomass to valuable fuels and products,(More)
The field of tissue engineering places complex demands on the materials it uses. The materials chosen to support the intricate processes of tissue development and maintenance need to have properties which serve both the bulk mechanical and structural requirements of the target tissue, as well as enabling interactions with cells at the molecular scale. In(More)
We investigate the dependence of Bayesian error bars on the distribution of data in input space. For generalized linear regression models we derive an upper bound on the error bars which shows that, in the neighbourhood of the data points, the error bars are substantially reduced from their prior values. For regions of high data density we also show that(More)
BACKGROUND ADHD is a common childhood onset mental health disorder that persists into adulthood in two-thirds of cases. One of the most prevalent and impairing comorbidities of ADHD in adults are substance use disorders. We estimate rates of ADHD in patients with substance abuse disorders and delineate impairment in the co-morbid group. METHOD Screening(More)
We examined the relationship of tolerance of ambiguity to severe global factors and specific types of anomalous or paranormal experience. 107 undergraduate students completed MacDonald's 1970 AT-20 and the Anomalous Experiences Inventory of Kumar, Pekala, and Gallagher. Scores on the five subscales of the Anomalous Experiences Inventory correlated(More)
A novel chemoselective polymerization control yields predictable (co)polymer compositions from a mixture of monomers. Using a dizinc catalyst and a mixture of caprolactone, cyclohexene oxide, and carbon dioxide enables the selective preparation of either polyesters or polycarbonates or copoly(ester-carbonates). The selectivity depends on the nature of the(More)
Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and(More)
Understanding how to moderate and improve catalytic activity is critical to improving degradable polymer production. Here, di- and monozinc catalysts, coordinated by bis(imino)diphenylamido ligands, show remarkable activities and allow determination of the factors controlling performance. In most cases, the dizinc catalysts significantly out-perform the(More)
The bottom-up synthesis of ligand-stabilized functional nanoparticles from molecular precursors is widely applied but is difficult to study mechanistically. Here we use (31)P NMR spectroscopy to follow the trajectory of phosphinate ligands during the synthesis of a range of ligated zinc oxo clusters, containing 4, 6 and 11 zinc atoms. Using an(More)