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Insulin resistance is a major factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. To investigate how insulin resistance arises, we studied healthy, lean, elderly and young participants matched for lean body mass and fat mass. Elderly study participants were markedly insulin-resistant as compared with young controls, and this resistance was(More)
Imatinib mesylate targets mutated KIT oncoproteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and produces a clinical response in 80% of patients. The mechanism is believed to depend predominantly on the inhibition of KIT-driven signals for tumor-cell survival and proliferation. Using a mouse model of spontaneous GIST, we found that the immune system(More)
The steady-state rate of glucose oxidation through the mitochondrial TCA cycle (V(TCA)) was measured in acid extracts of 10- and 30-day-old cerebral cortex of rats receiving [1-13C]glucose intravenously and in neocortical slices superfused in vitro with the same isotope. TCA cycle flux was determined for each age group based on metabolic modeling analysis(More)
Knockout and blocking studies have shown a critical role for CTLA-4 in peripheral tolerance, however, it is unknown whether augmenting CTLA-4 expression actually promotes tolerance. Here we demonstrate a specific and requisite role for CTLA-4 and its up-regulation in tolerance through anti-CD45RB. First, long-term murine islet allograft survival induced by(More)
Activation of oncogenes by mechanisms other than genetic aberrations such as mutations, translocations, or amplifications is largely undefined. Here we report a novel isoform of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) that is expressed in ∼11% of melanomas and sporadically in other human cancer types, but not in normal tissues. The novel ALK transcript(More)
Survivin is a cancer gene implicated in inhibition of apoptosis and regulation of mitosis, but its function in normal cells has remained elusive. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing survivin in pancreatic islet beta-cells show no changes in cell proliferation, as determined by islet size or islet number. Transplantation of survivin transgenic(More)
The strategy of immune modulation for the treatment of cancer is being refined with the introduction of multiple new therapeutic agents into the clinic. Melanoma is a disease where many of these agents have demonstrated efficacy. The mechanisms of action of these agents exploit the counter-regulatory mechanisms of the immune response. However, these agents(More)
BACKGROUND The safety of simultaneous resections of colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases (SCRLM) is not established. This multi-institutional retrospective study compared postoperative outcomes after simultaneous and staged colorectal and hepatic resections. METHODS Clinicopathologic data, treatments, and postoperative outcomes from patients(More)
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