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Evidence from a range of primate species indicates that grooming can be exchanged either for itself or for other rank-related "commodities," such as agonistic support, feeding tolerance, or reduced aggression. Patterns of exchange behavior have been found to vary considerably between species, and understanding the causes of this variation is central to the(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the literature on the role of oral sex in the transmission of viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs). METHOD A Medline search was performed using the keywords oro-genital sex, and those specific to each infection. Further references from each article identified by Medline were also included, as were relevant references from(More)
All great ape species are endangered, and infectious diseases are thought to pose a particular threat to their survival. As great ape species vary substantially in social organisation and gregariousness, there are likely to be differences in susceptibility to disease types and spread. Understanding the relation between social variables and disease is(More)
Disease is a major concern for the conservation of great apes, and one that is likely to become increasingly relevant as deforestation and the rise of ecotourism bring humans and apes into ever closer proximity. Consequently, it is imperative that preventative measures are explored to ensure that future epidemics do not wipe out the remaining populations of(More)
The wart-biter bush cricket is a relatively abundant species in mainland Europe, but has been declining at the northern edge of its range. With the predicted changes to the global climate that are expected to occur over the next century, it is probable that many species will shift their ranges polewards and to higher altitudes to track suitable climates. In(More)
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