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Activity patterns were recorded from 51 motoneurons in the fifth lumbar ventral root of cats walking on a motorized treadmill at a range of speeds between 0.1 and 1.3 m/s. The muscle of destination of recorded motoneurons was identified by spike-triggered averaging of EMG recordings from each of the anterior thigh muscles. Forty-three motoneurons projected(More)
Cat sartorius has two distinct anatomical portions, anterior (SA-a) and medial (SA-m). SA-a acts to extend the knee and also to flex the hip. SA-m acts to flex both the knee and the hip. The objective of this study was to investigate how a "single motoneuron pool" is used to control at least three separate functions mediated by the two anatomical portions(More)
Several cat hindlimb muscles that exhibit differential activation (activity that is restricted to a specific region of muscle) during natural movements were studied to determine the possible roles of 1) non-uniform distribution of histochemically-identified muscle fiber-types (semitendinosus, ST; tibialis anterior, TA) or 2) mechanical heterogeneity (biceps(More)
The cat hindlimb contains several long, biarticular strap muscles composed of parallel muscle fascicles that attach to short tendons. Three of these muscles--sartorius, tenuissimus, and semitendinosus--were studied by dissecting individual gold-stained fibers and determining the surface distribution of acetylcholinesterase-stained end-plate zones. In each(More)
BACKGROUND Research on the metabolic syndrome and its association with lifestyle behaviors in adolescents is important for identifying subgroups of youth at whom interventions should be targeted. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship of metabolic syndrome with diet and physical activity in US adolescents. DESIGN A sample of 4,450 12- to 19-year-olds was(More)
Fine flexible wire microelectrodes chronically implanted in the fifth lumbar ventral root (L5 VR) of 17 cats rendered stable records of the natural discharge patterns of 164 individual axons during locomotion on a treadmill. Fifty-one out of 164 axons were identified as motoneurons projecting to the anterior thigh muscle group. For these axons, the(More)
BACKGROUND Physical activity is important for weight control and good health; however, activity levels decline in the adolescent years, particularly in girls. DESIGN Group randomized controlled trial. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Middle school girls with English-speaking skills and no conditions to prevent participation in physical activity in 36 schools in six(More)
W ith Ͼ130 million Americans employed across the United States, workplaces provide a large audience for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke prevention activities. Experience has shown that workplace wellness programs are an important strategy to prevent the major shared risk factors for CVD and stroke, including cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension,(More)
The cat sartorius (SA) can be divided functionally into an anterior (SAa), knee extensor portion and a medial (SAm), knee flexor portion; it can be further subdivided anatomically by multiple nerve branches into parallel longitudinal columns that terminate in a distributed insertion at the knee with a continuous range of moment arms. Thus, SA may be(More)
PURPOSE To assess girls' physical activity (PA) in middle school physical education (PE) as it relates to field site, lesson context and location, teacher gender, and class composition. METHODS We observed girls' PA levels, lesson contexts, and activity promotion by teachers in 431 lessons in 36 schools from six field sites participating in the Trial of(More)