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Activity patterns were recorded from 51 motoneurons in the fifth lumbar ventral root of cats walking on a motorized treadmill at a range of speeds between 0.1 and 1.3 m/s. The muscle of destination of recorded motoneurons was identified by spike-triggered averaging of EMG recordings from each of the anterior thigh muscles. Forty-three motoneurons projected(More)
The cat hindlimb contains several long, biarticular strap muscles composed of parallel muscle fascicles that attach to short tendons. Three of these muscles--sartorius, tenuissimus, and semitendinosus--were studied by dissecting individual gold-stained fibers and determining the surface distribution of acetylcholinesterase-stained end-plate zones. In each(More)
3 experiments were conducted to investigate the claim made by Wimmer, Hogrefe, and Perner that 3-4-year-old children do not understand that people gain knowledge about something by looking at it. The first experiment involved a simple forced-choice procedure in which children had to judge which of 2 assistants knew what was inside a box when one of the(More)
The activity of selected single alpha-motoneurons, Renshaw cells (RCs), and Ia inhibitory interneurons (IaINs) during fictive locomotion was recorded via microelectrodes in decerebrate (precollicular-postmammillary) cats in which fictive locomotion was induced by stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region. The interrelationships in the timing and(More)
Similarities between the muscle synergies associated with the flexion reflex and locomotion in reduced preparations have suggested that spinal circuits subserving these two motor tasks might share common interneurons. To test this hypothesis in functionally complex muscles, we studied the interaction between low-threshold cutaneous afferents and the(More)
It is commonly assumed that the motor units comprising a single mammalian muscle will be recruited asynchronously at subtetanic firing rates to produce smoothly modulated force output. However, electromyograms from certain neck muscles, recorded by implanted bipolar "patch" electrodes having large contacts, often exhibited a rhythmic clustering of spike(More)
1. The functional organization of heterogenic reflexes produced by activation of extensor force receptors (Golgi tendon organs) was studied in intact cats during stationary stance. Intramuscular stimulation (200 Hz, 20 ms) of hindlimb extensor muscles via chronically implanted electrodes was used to evoke weak muscle contractions and naturally activate(More)
The conduction velocity of peripheral neurons recorded by wire microelectrodes implanted in intact, freely moving cats was determined on-line using the technique of spike-triggered averaging of nerve cuff electrode records described here. Axonal velocity was estimated from the conduction latency between two adjacent sets of tripolar recording electrodes(More)
Long-term recording from single lumbar motoneurons of intact cats revealed activation patterns fundamentally different from those seen in decerebrate preparations. In intact cats, motoneuron bursts showed marked rate modulation without initial doublets. Each unit's frequencygram generally resembled the envelope of the gross electromyogram simultaneously(More)