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Sucrose produces physical dependence and reinforcing effects in rats. We hypothesized that similar effects could be demonstrated in planarians, the earliest animal with a centralized nervous system. We used two assays, one that quantifies withdrawal responses during drug absence as a reduction in motility and another that quantifies reinforcing effects(More)
—Future mobile communications systems are likely to be very different to those of today with new service innovations driven by increasing data traffic demand, increasing processing power of smart devices and new innovative applications. To meet these service demands the telecommunications industry is converging on a common set of 5G requirements which(More)
Initial access is the process which allows a mobile user to first connect to a cellular network. It consists of two main steps: cell search (CS) on the downlink and random access (RA) on the uplink. Millimeter wave (mmWave) cellular systems typically must rely on directional beamforming (BF) in order to create a viable connection. The beamforming direction(More)
BACKGROUND Previous qualitative research among adults and parents of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) has identified inattention as an important psychiatric aspect of this condition. The parent-reported ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD RS-IV) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) have been validated for measuring inattention symptoms in persons with(More)
For a clinical trial with a time-to-event primary endpoint, the rate of accrual of the event of interest determines the timing of the analysis, upon which significant resources and strategic planning depend. It is important to be able to predict the analysis time early and accurately. Currently available methods use either parametric or nonparametric models(More)
PURPOSE To determine the negative predictive value of sonographically guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy of breast masses, with detailed analysis of any false-negative cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS We reviewed 669 cases of sonographically guided 14-gauge core needle biopsies that had benign pathologic findings. Given a benign pathology on core biopsy,(More)
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