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To some degree, all current models of visual motion-perception mechanisms depend on the power of the visual signal in various spatiotemporal-frequency bands. Here we show how to construct counterexamples: visual stimuli that are consistently perceived as obviously moving in a fixed direction yet for which Fourier-domain power analysis yields no systematic(More)
We demonstrate two kinds of visual stimuli that exhibit motion in one direction when viewed from near and in the opposite direction from afar. These striking reversals occur because each kind of stimulus is constructed to simultaneously activate two different mechanisms: a short-range mechanism that computes motion from space-time correspondences in(More)
For a patch of random visual texture embedded in a surrounding background of similar texture, we demonstrate that the perceived contrast of the texture patch depends substantially on the contrast of the background. When the texture patch is surrounded by high-contrast texture, the bright points of the texture patch appear dimmer, and simultaneously, its(More)
UNLABELLED When a central test patch C, composed of an isotropic spatial texture, is surrounded by a texture field S, the perceived contrast of C depends substantially on the contrast of the surround S. When C is surrounded by a high contrast texture with a similar spatial frequency content, it appears to have less contrast than when it is surrounded by a(More)
We examine apparent motion carried by textural properties. The texture stimuli consist of a sequence of grating patches of various spatial frequencies and amplitudes. Phases are randomized between frames to insure that first-order motion mechanisms directly applied to stimulus luminance are not systematically engaged. We use ambiguous apparent motion(More)
A new psychophysical methodology is introduced, histogram contrast analysis, that allows one to measure stimulus transformations, f, used by the visual system to draw distinctions between different image regions. The method involves the discrimination of images constructed by selecting texture micropatterns randomly and independently (across locations) on(More)
Individual cuttlefish, octopus and squid have the versatile capability to use body patterns for background matching and disruptive coloration. We define--qualitatively and quantitatively--the chief characteristics of the three major body pattern types used for camouflage by cephalopods: uniform and mottle patterns for background matching, and disruptive(More)
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can impair interictal cognitive function. In the perceptual domain, previous psychophysical studies demonstrated specific deficits in auditory and tactile perception in patients with TLE. This study compared performance of 25 TLE subjects and 27 controls on two low-level, visual tasks: luminance discrimination and frequency(More)
We examined the role of fibronectin (FN) and FN-binding integrins in macrophage differentiation. Increased FN and alpha5beta1 integrin gene expression was observed in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate PMA-treated HL-60 cells and PMA- or macrophage-CSF-treated blood monocytes before the manifestation of macrophage markers. After treatment of HL-60 cells and(More)
A theory of human second-order motion perception is proposed and further applied to the discrimination of texture slant. The computational algorithms for deriving the direction of left-right motion from a sequence of images are equivalent to the algorithms for deriving the direction of slant (e.g. from top left to bottom right or top right to bottom left)(More)