Charles ffrench-Constant

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Remyelination involves reinvesting demyelinated axons with new myelin sheaths. In stark contrast to the situation that follows loss of neurons or axonal damage, remyelination in the CNS can be a highly effective regenerative process. It is mediated by a population of precursor cells called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which are widely distributed(More)
The molecular basis of CNS myelin regeneration (remyelination) is poorly understood. We generated a comprehensive transcriptional profile of the separate stages of spontaneous remyelination that follow focal demyelination in the rat CNS and found that transcripts that encode the retinoid acid receptor RXR-γ were differentially expressed during(More)
The extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C is widely expressed in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) during development and repair. Despite multiple effects of tenascin-C on cell behaviour in culture, no structural abnormalities of the CNS and other organs have been found in adult tenascin-C-null mice, raising the question of whether this(More)
We have shown previously that the rat optic nerve contains three types of macroglial cells--oligodendrocytes and two types of astrocytes--which develop as two distinct lineages. Type-1 astrocytes develop from one type of precursor cell beginning at embryonic day 16 (E16), while oligodendrocytes and then type-2 astrocytes develop from a common, bipotential(More)
Myelination of the CNS requires the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors throughout the CNS from restricted regions within the ventricular and subventricular zones. In light of the significant effects of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions on cell migration in other developing systems, we have analyzed the role of integrins in oligodendrocyte(More)
The majority of axons in the central nervous system (CNS) are eventually myelinated by oligodendrocytes, but whether the timing and extent of myelination in vivo reflect intrinsic properties of oligodendrocytes, or are regulated by axons, remains undetermined. Here, we use zebrafish to study CNS myelination at single-cell resolution in vivo. We show that(More)
Spinal cord oligodendrocytes originate in the ventricular zone and subsequently migrate to white matter, stop, proliferate, and differentiate. Here we demonstrate a role for the chemokine CXCL1 and its receptor CXCR2 in patterning the developing spinal cord. Signaling through CXCR2, CXCL1 inhibited oligodendrocyte precursor migration. The migrational arrest(More)
The performance of 54 subjects genetically at risk for Huntington's disease was examined in double-blind fashion on a series of computerized tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. None of the subjects exhibited clinical movement disorder characteristic of Huntington's disease. Of the 54 subjects, 22 were Huntington's disease(More)
The emerging evidence that stem cells develop in specialised niches highlights the potential role of environmental factors in their regulation. Here we examine the role of beta1 integrin/extracellular matrix interactions in neural stem cells. We find high levels of beta1 integrin expression in the stem-cell containing regions of the embryonic CNS, with(More)
Proliferation and tangential migration of neural precursor cells are essential determinants of CNS development. We have established cell culture models of both these processes using neural precursor cells grown as neurospheres. The pattern of migration that we observe in these cells is homotypic and occurs in the absence of a glial or neuronal scaffold, and(More)