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The 'protein only' hypothesis postulates that the prion, the agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, is PrP(Sc), an isoform of the host protein PrP(C). Protease treatment of prion preparations cleaves off approximately 60 N-terminal residues of PrP(Sc) but does not abrogate infectivity. Disruption of the PrP gene in the mouse abolishes(More)
PrPC is a host protein anchored to the outer surface of neurons and to a lesser extent of lymphocytes and other cells. The transmissible agent (prion) responsible for scrapie is believed to be a modified form of PrPC. Mice homozygous for disrupted PrP genes have been generated. Surprisingly, they develop and behave normally for at least seven months, and no(More)
Accumulation of the prion protein PrPSc, a pathological and protease-resistant isoform of the normal host protein PrPC, is a feature of prion disease such as scrapie. It is still unknown whether scrapie pathology comes about by neurotoxicity of PrPSc, acute depletion of PrPC, or some other mechanism. Here we investigate this question by grafting neural(More)
S.B. Prusiner proposed that the infectious agent of scraple, the prion, is PrPSc, a modified form of the normal host protein PrPC. Prn-p0/0 mice devoid of PrPC showed normal development and behavior. When inoculated with mouse scrapie prions, they remained free of scrapie symptoms for at least 13 months while wild-type controls all died within 6 months.(More)
The physiological role of prion protein (PrP) remains unknown. Mice devoid of PrP develop normally but are resistant to scrapie; introduction of a PrP transgene restores susceptibility to the disease. To identify the regions of PrP necessary for this activity, we prepared PrP knockout mice expressing PrPs with amino-proximal deletions. Surprisingly, PrP(More)
Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) has been implicated in interferon (IFN) induction, antiviral response and tumor suppression. We have generated mice devoid of functional PKR (Pkr%). Although the mice are physically normal and the induction of type I IFN genes by poly(I).poly(C) (pIC) and virus is unimpaired, the antiviral response induced(More)
The beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) gene of the mouse was disrupted by inserting into exon 2 a cassette containing a neomycin resistance gene and a putative transcription termination sequence. Contrary to expectation, brain and other tissues from mice homozygous for the insertion still contained beta APP-specific RNA, albeit at a level 5- to(More)
Mice devoid of PrPC (Prnp%) are resistant to scrapie and do not allow propagation of the infectious agent (prion). PrPC-expressing neuroectodermal tissue grafted into Prnp% brains but not the surrounding tissue consistently exhibits scrapie-specific pathology and allows prion replication after inoculation. Scrapie prions administered intraocularly into(More)
In scrapie-infected mice, prions are found associated with splenic but not circulating B and T lymphocytes and in the stroma, which contains follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Formation and maintenance of mature FDCs require the presence of B cells expressing membrane-bound lymphotoxin-alpha/beta. Treatment of mice with soluble lymphotoxin-beta receptor(More)