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OBJECTIVES To examine the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition and other biomarkers associated with Alzheimer disease pathology for older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and assess the role of sex as a predictor of response. DESIGN Six-month, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. SETTING Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System(More)
In the present article, we report on two studies performed in young human populations which tested the cognitive impact of glucocorticoids (GC) in situations of decreased or increased ratio of mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptor occupation. In the first study, we used a hormone replacement protocol in which we pharmacologically decreased(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the association of salivary cortisol with cognitive changes in a 3 year longitudinal study. Previous studies have suggested that elevated glucocorticoid concentrations alter hippocampal neuronal morphology, inhibit neurogenesis, and impair cognition. METHODS Salivary cortisol samples were collected at home by 79 cognitively intact(More)
To assess acute effects of alcohol on forebrain and pituitary opiomelanocortinergic regulation, a model was developed in which "experienced" (previously introduced to ethanol administration, so the subjective response was not a novel stimulus) male Sprague-Dawley rats received pulsatile intragastric ethanol infusions during the dark (active) photophase to(More)
BACKGROUND Decreased basal cortisol levels have been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is evidence for enhanced negative feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in PTSD, which could account for this, but other possible mechanisms have not been ruled out. We examined the HPA axis employing(More)
Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) is a syndrome of acute adaptation to a metabolic stressor, in which neuroendocrine responses to repetitive hypoglycemic bouts are blunted. The CNS mechanisms that contribute to HAAF are unknown. In the present study, we modeled HAAF in the rat and measured the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as an index(More)
Possible differences between men and women in age-related patterns of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to challenge were examined to test the hypothesis that women show greater age-related increase in HPA axis reactivity to challenge. Twenty-six younger subjects, 9 men and 17 women, ages 22-26 and 14 older subjects, 7 men and 7 women, ages(More)
BACKGROUND Preclinical research findings suggest that exposure to stress and concomitant hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during early development can have permanent and potentially deleterious effects. A history of early-life abuse or neglect appears to increase risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Abnormal HPA response to stress(More)
Degeneration of the noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) is a major component of Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but the consequence of noradrenergic neuronal loss has different effects on the surviving neurons in the two disorders. Therefore, understanding the consequence of noradrenergic neuronal loss is important in(More)
In a previous longitudinal study of basal cortisol levels and cognitive function in humans, we showed that elderly humans with 4- to 7-yr cumulative exposure to high levels of cortisol present memory impairments, compared with elderly humans with moderate cortisol levels over years. Here, we measured whether memory performance in two groups of elderly(More)