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OBJECTIVES To examine the effects of aerobic exercise on cognition and other biomarkers associated with Alzheimer disease pathology for older adults with mild cognitive impairment, and assess the role of sex as a predictor of response. DESIGN Six-month, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. SETTING Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System(More)
In the present article, we report on two studies performed in young human populations which tested the cognitive impact of glucocorticoids (GC) in situations of decreased or increased ratio of mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptor occupation. In the first study, we used a hormone replacement protocol in which we pharmacologically decreased(More)
BACKGROUND Preclinical research findings suggest that exposure to stress and concomitant hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during early development can have permanent and potentially deleterious effects. A history of early-life abuse or neglect appears to increase risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Abnormal HPA response to stress(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the association of salivary cortisol with cognitive changes in a 3 year longitudinal study. Previous studies have suggested that elevated glucocorticoid concentrations alter hippocampal neuronal morphology, inhibit neurogenesis, and impair cognition. METHODS Salivary cortisol samples were collected at home by 79 cognitively intact(More)
Possible differences between men and women in age-related patterns of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to challenge were examined to test the hypothesis that women show greater age-related increase in HPA axis reactivity to challenge. Twenty-six younger subjects, 9 men and 17 women, ages 22-26 and 14 older subjects, 7 men and 7 women, ages(More)
Research suggests that disruptions in early caretaking can have long-term effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which mediates the stress response. Children of depressed mothers are at increased risk for developing internalizing problems in part because of disruptions in their caretaking environment. The present study investigated(More)
Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation(More)
BACKGROUND Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function has been demonstrated to be compromised for weeks and even months after alcoholics cease ethanol consumption. Because nonalcoholic subjects with family history-associated increased risk for alcoholism also exhibit compromised HPA function, it is not clear whether defects in the HPA axis of abstinent(More)
In a previous longitudinal study of basal cortisol levels and cognitive function in humans, we showed that elderly humans with 4- to 7-yr cumulative exposure to high levels of cortisol present memory impairments, compared with elderly humans with moderate cortisol levels over years. Here, we measured whether memory performance in two groups of elderly(More)
Adrenal adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and corticosterone responses to exogenous ACTH were found to be about 2.5 times greater in the evening (at lights off) than in the morning (at lights on) in rats. The rhythm in adrenal responsiveness to ACTH was found to persist in rats treated with dexamethasone 15 and 3 h before exogenous ACTH (in the(More)