Charles W. Saunders

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Fungi in the genus Malassezia are ubiquitous skin residents of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Malassezia are involved in disorders including dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis, which together affect >50% of humans. Despite the importance of Malassezia in common skin diseases, remarkably little is known at the molecular level. We describe the genome,(More)
The major cause of athlete's foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease(More)
We have extended the analysis of plasmid transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae by finding that monomeric and dimeric open circular and linear forms of pMV158 were active in transformation. Their efficiencies were at least 35-fold lower than those of the corresponding closed circular forms. The evidence came largely from analysis of S1 nuclease-digested(More)
Despite the widespread use of N,N,-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in insect repellent products, nothing is known about the molecular basis for the repellency of deet, we initiated a molecular genetics program to elucidate the molecular mechanism of deet repellency in Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen). Deet repellency was apparently due to airborne vapors,(More)
UNLABELLED Malassezia commensal yeasts are associated with a number of skin disorders, such as atopic eczema/dermatitis and dandruff, and they also can cause systemic infections. Here we describe the 7.67-Mbp genome of Malassezia sympodialis, a species associated with atopic eczema, and contrast its genome repertoire with that of Malassezia globosa,(More)
Dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis (D/SD) are common hyperproliferative scalp disorders with a similar etiology. Both result, in part, from metabolic activity of Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta, commensal basidiomycete yeasts commonly found on human scalps. Current hypotheses about the mechanism of D/SD include Malassezia-induced fatty acid(More)
With several different vectors, attempts were made to establish blaZ, a Staphylococcus aureus beta-lactamase gene, in Bacillus subtilis. Stable establishment of blaZ in B. subtilis was achieved by use of a vector that allowed the integration of a single copy of the gene into the chromosome of that host. blaZ was expressed in the heterologous host since B.(More)
Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi) that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are associated with common skin disorders. To characterize the(More)
Standard mechanism protein inhibitors of serine proteinases share a common mechanism of interaction with their cognate enzymes. The P1 residue of the inhibitor interacts with the enzyme in a substrate-like manner. Its side chain becomes imbedded in the S1 cavity of the enzyme. The nature of P1, the primary specificity residue, greatly affects the strength(More)
BACKGROUND Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is the active ingredient most commonly used in many antidandruff treatments. Despite decades of successful use to treat human scalps, little is understood about the antifungal mechanism of action of ZPT. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to understand the molecular mechanism by which ZPT inhibits fungal growth, the(More)