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This article explores the use of scalar and multivariate autoregressive (AR) models to extract features from the human electroencephalogram (EEG) with which mental tasks can be discriminated. This is part of a larger project to investigate the feasibility of using EEG to allow paralyzed persons to control a device like a wheelchair. EEG signals from four(More)
The reliable operation of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) signals requires accurate classification of multichannel EEG. The design of EEG representations and classifiers for BCI are open research questions whose difficulty stems from the need to extract complex spatial and temporal patterns from noisy(More)
At the recent Second International Meeting on Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) held in June 2002 in Rensselaerville, NY, a formal debate was held on the pros and cons of linear and nonlinear methods in BCI research. Specific examples applying EEG data sets to linear and nonlinear methods are given and an overview of the various pros and cons of each(More)
This article explores the use of scalar and multivariate autoregressive (AR) models to extract features from the human electroencephalogram (EEG) with which mental tasks can be discriminated. This is part of a larger project to investigate the feasibility of using EEG to allow paralyzed persons to control a device such as a wheelchair. EEG signals from four(More)
Neural networks are trained to classify half-second segments of six-channel, EEG data into one of five classes corresponding to five cognitive tasks performed by four subjects. Two and three-layer feedfor-ward neural networks are trained using 10-fold cross-validation and early stopping to control over-fitting. EEG signals were represented as autoregressive(More)
We dissociated the contributions to learning of four corticostriatal "loops" (interacting striatal and cortical regions): motor (putamen and motor cortex), visual (posterior caudate and visual cortex), executive (anterior caudate and prefrontal cortex), and motivational (ventral striatum and ventromedial frontal cortex). Subjects learned to categorize(More)
EEG analysis has played a key role in the modeling of the brain's cortical dynamics, but relatively little eeort has been devoted to developing EEG as a limited means of communication. If several mental states can be reliably distinguished by recognizing patterns in EEG, then a paralyzed person could communicate to a device like a wheelchair by composing(More)
Acknowledgements Research in areas where there are many possible paths to follow requires a keen eye for crucial issues. The study of learning systems is such an area. Through the years of working with Andy Barto and Rich Sutton, I have observed many instances of " fluff cutting " and the exposure of basic issues. I thank both Andy and Rich for the insights(More)