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Evidence of damage to cerebral vein walls was sought in 70 cases of multiple sclerosis. Seventy control cases were also examined. The multiple sclerosis cases showed venous intramural fibrinoid deposition (7%), recent haemorrhages (17%), old haemorrhages revealed by haemosiderin deposition (30%), thrombosis (6%) and thickened veins (19%). In all, 41% of all(More)
We report that the light-harvesting and reaction center genes in the rxcA locus of R. capsulata are contained within a single operon and that their differential expression results predominantly from marked segmental differences in stability within the polycistronic rxcA transcript. The 3' portion of this transcript is rapidly degraded to give rise to either(More)
The active established plaque in multiple sclerosis is characterized by hypercellularity at its edge and lipid phagocytosis (gitter cells). The hyperactive early plaque shows cells throughout the lesion. Active plaques seems to extend at their edges; proteolysis of myelin basic protein is perhaps an important factor in the myelin breakdown at the rim of(More)
Twenty cases of acute or early multiple sclerosis have been examined using staining, histochemical or immunocytochemical methods. They had died within 6 months after initial clinical onset (12) or commencement of an "anatomically-remote" acute relapse (8). Plaques in these acute cases showed the following characteristics: lymphocytic perivascular(More)
Fifty-two plaque or lesion areas were examined from 25 cases of multiple sclerosis. Twenty-four of these showed acute features, whereas the rest were more chronic in nature. The acute lesions showed lymphocytic infiltration (79%), fibrinous exudation (63%), lymphocytic meningitis (50%) and venulitis (58%). Of the chronic lesions, there were only 21% with(More)
The periventricular region was studied in the brains of 129 cases of multiple sclerosis, with the purpose of establishing the mechanism and order of events in the development of the periventricular plaque, and deciding whether there is any relationship between granular ependymitis and such plaques. Periventricular plaques were found in 82.2% of cases.(More)
Using the monoclonal antibody HAM-56 with the avidin-biotin method on recent or archival paraffin-embedded tissue from multiple sclerosis brains, we have been able to distinguish between acute, chronic active and inactive lesions. HAM-56 stains all macrophages, monocytes and at least some microglia; it is the only pan-macrophage marker to our knowledge that(More)