Charles V Vorhees

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The Morris water maze (MWM) is a test of spatial learning for rodents that relies on distal cues to navigate from start locations around the perimeter of an open swimming arena to locate a submerged escape platform. Spatial learning is assessed across repeated trials and reference memory is determined by preference for the platform area when the platform is(More)
Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg d-methamphetamine (MA), expressed as the free base, by SC injection (b.i.d., 8 h apart) on days 7-12 or 13-18 of gestation. Plasma concentration of MA and amphetamine were determined after the last dose. MA reduced gestation weight gain. The late exposure resulted in an increase in(More)
Cocaine and amphetamine can induce both short-term and long-term behavioral changes in rodents. The major target for these psychostimulants is thought to be the brain dopamine system. To determine whether the dopamine D1 receptor plays a crucial role in the behavioral effects of psychostimulants, we tested both the locomotor and stereotyped behaviors in D1(More)
Use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) has increased dramatically in recent years, yet little is known about its effects on the developing brain. Neonatal rats were administered MDMA on days 1-10 or 11-20 (analogous to early and late human third trimester brain development). MDMA exposure had no effect on survival but did affect body(More)
Several disorders have been associated with mutations in Na,K-ATPase alpha isoforms (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, familial hemiplegic migraine type-2), as well as reduction in Na,K-ATPase content (depression and Alzheimer's disease), thereby raising the issue of whether haploinsufficiency or altered enzymatic function contribute to disease etiology.(More)
Recent studies suggest that postmitotic neurons can reenter the cell cycle as a prelude to apoptosis after brain injury. However, most dying neurons do not pass the G1/S-phase checkpoint to resume DNA synthesis. The specific factors that trigger abortive DNA synthesis are not characterized. Here we show that the combination of hypoxia and ischemia induces(More)
BACKGROUND +/-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a recreational drug that causes cognitive deficits in humans. A rat model for learning and memory deficits has not been established, although some cognitive deficits have been reported. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with MDMA (15 mg/kg x 4 doses) or saline (SAL) (n = 20/treatment(More)
Hypoxia is a critical factor for cell death or survival in ischemic stroke, but the pathological consequences of combined ischemia-hypoxia are not fully understood. Here we examine this issue using a modified Levine/Vannucci procedure in adult mice that consists of unilateral common carotid artery occlusion and hypoxia with tightly regulated body(More)
BACKGROUND Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon(More)
The neurotoxic effects of a single administration of methamphetamine (MA) were studied under conditions conducive to MA-induced hyperthermia. After a single dose of MA (10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg, s. c.) or saline (3 ml/kg) to Sprague-Dawley CD rats, rectal temperatures were monitored for 9 h in a room with an ambient temperature of 22.0+/-0.5 degrees C. MA(More)