Charles T. Scialfa

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Two experiments examined the role of fundamental spatial frequency, target area and retinal eccentricity in texture segmentation. In Experiment 1, a backward-masked target comprising lines oriented orthogonally to the surround was briefly presented at the fovea, and at eccentricities ranging from 2.55 to 7.63 deg. Reaction time and accuracy were better when(More)
In two experiments, younger and older observers carried out feature searches for targets defined by their luminance contrast and orientation. Additionally, they received consistent-mapping (CM) training in luminance contrast by orientation conjunction search, followed by a brief exposure to conjunction search under reversal conditions. In Experiment 1,(More)
Inhibition of return (IOR) occurs when people are slower to detect a target that appeared at a previously cued location. Prior research has shown that younger and older adults display similar amounts of IOR, but this research has not examined the time course of the process. Because elderly people may be slower to engage or disengage spatially based(More)
Age differences in the useful field of view (UFOV) were examined by asking younger (mean age = 24 years) and older (mean age = 64 years) observers to search for two oriented line targets. These targets were presented at eccentricities ranging from 4 degrees to 14 degrees, and were embedded in either no distractors, homogeneous distractors, or heterogeneous(More)
Latency and eye movement measures were used to examine the effects of aging, clutter, and luminance on visual search for traffic signs embedded in digitized images of driving scenes. Initially 14 older and 14 younger observers classified daytime and nighttime traffic scenes as containing low or high amounts of clutter. Next, an independent sample of 14(More)
Performance on complex, cognitive tasks often is sensitive to low-level sensory and perceptual factors. These relations are particularly important for cognitive aging researchers because aging is associated with a variety of changes in sensory and perceptual function. In the article that follows, I first selectively outline some relations between task(More)
In four experiments, saccadic eye movements, reaction times (RTs), and accuracy were measured as observers searched for feature or conjunction targets presented at several eccentricities. A conjunction search deficit, evidenced by a large eccentricity effect on RTs, accuracy, and number of saccades, was seen in Experiments 1A and 1B. Experiment 2 indicated(More)
Foveal and peripheral target detection were compared in young adults (M age = 22 years) and older adults (M age = 66 years) who were optically corrected for the viewing distance. In a two-alternative, forced-choice task, target letters were presented at 0 degree to 10.5 degrees from fixation. Targets were presented alone, flanked on each side by one noise(More)
Younger and older adults were asked to find a single target in both feature- and conjunction- search conditions. Display size varied between 2 and 8 items, and target-distractor similarity ranged from relatively low to high levels. The accuracy data indicated that older adults had particular difficulty finding targets in high-similarity conjunction-search(More)
Automobile accidents among older adults may be related to difficulties in judging the speed of other vehicles. To examine this possibility, 3 groups of observers in the young adult, middle-aged, and older adult age ranges were asked to estimate the velocity of an isolated automobile traveling at 15-50 mph (24-80 kph). Across all age groups, perceived and(More)