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Quorum sensing (QS) governs the production of virulence factors and the architecture and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) resistance of biofilm-grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa QS requires two transcriptional activator proteins known as LasR and RhlR and their cognate autoinducers PAI-1 (N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone) and PAI-2(More)
LINE-1 elements (L1s) are a family of highly successful retrotransposons comprising approximately 17% of the human genome, the majority of which have inserted through an endonuclease-dependent mechanism termed target-primed reverse transcription. Recent in vitro analyses suggest that in the absence of non-homologous end joining proteins, L1 elements may(More)
The completion of the draft sequence of the rhesus macaque genome allowed us to study the genomic composition and evolution of transposable elements in this representative of the Old World monkey lineage, a group of diverse primates closely related to humans. The L1 family of long interspersed elements appears to have evolved as a single lineage, and Alu(More)
The Sunda Banda Seascape (SBS), located in the center of the Coral Triangle, is a global center of marine biodiversity and a conservation priority. We proposed the first biophysical environmental delineation of the SBS using globally available satellite remote sensing and model-assimilated data to categorize this area into unique and meaningful biophysical(More)
The role of oxygen availability in determining the local physiological activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms was investigated. Biofilms grown in an ambient-air environment expressed approximately 1/15th the alkaline phosphatase specific activity of planktonic bacteria subjected to the same phosphate limitation treatment. Biofilms grown in a(More)
The use of acridine orange to visualize and quantify spatial variations in growth rate within Klebsiella pneumoniae colonies and biofilm was investigated. Bacterial colonies supported on polycarbonate filter membranes were grown on R2A agar plates. Some colonies were sampled for cell enumeration, while others were cryoembedded, sectioned, and stained with(More)
It was previously shown that the mRNA for the cat-1 Arg/Lys transporter is translated from an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is regulated by cellular stress. Amino acid starvation stimulated cat-1 translation via a mechanism that requires translation of an ORF in the mRNA leader and remodeling of the leader to form an active IRES (the "zipper(More)
Fluorescent stains in conjunction with cryoembedding and image analysis were applied to demonstrate spatial gradients in respiratory activity within bacterial biofilms during disinfection with monochloramine. Biofilms of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown together on stainless steel surfaces in continuous-flow annular reactors were(More)
The expression of alkaline phosphatase in response to phosphate starvation was shown to be spatially and temporally heterogeneous in bacterial biofilms and colonies. A commercial alkaline phosphatase substrate that generates a fluorescent, insoluble product was used in conjunction with frozen sectioning techniques to visualize spatial patterns of enzyme(More)
The Alu family is a highly successful group of non-LTR retrotransposons ubiquitously found in primate genomes. Similar to the L1 retrotransposon family, Alu elements integrate primarily through an endonuclease-dependent mechanism termed target site-primed reverse transcription (TPRT). Recent studies have suggested that, in addition to TPRT, L1 elements(More)