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Enterococcus faecalis is a microorganism commonly detected in asymptomatic, persistent endodontic infections. Its prevalence in such infections ranges from 24% to 77%. This finding can be explained by various survival and virulence factors possessed by E. faecalis, including its ability to compete with other microorganisms, invade dentinal tubules, and(More)
People prefer paying lower taxes. Lower taxes at one income can be financed by higher taxes at other incomes, which we term revenue extraction. We study revenue extraction when taxpayers elect representatives who set incentive-compatible tax policy and a minimum-utility constraint limits what can be taken from the poor. Revenue extraction by median-income(More)
Stress, either psychological or physical, can have a dramatic impact on the immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in the induction of innate and adaptive immune response. We have reported that stress modulates the immune response in a TLR4-dependent manner. However, the mechanisms underlying TLR4-mediated signaling in stress(More)
Opiates have been shown to inhibit cell growth and trigger apoptosis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously shown that morphine induces Fas expression and promotes Fas-mediated apoptosis. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which morphine modulates apoptosis in human Jurkat cells. Morphine-induced apoptosis was(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the reinforcement and strengthening ability of Resilon, gutta-percha, and a self-curing composite resin (Bisfil 2B) in endodontically treated roots of immature teeth. Sixty single rooted teeth were divided into five groups of 12 teeth each. Teeth in all groups except the negative controls were prepared with a #5(More)
Psychological and physical stress can alter the immune system in both humans and animals. We have reported that mice subjected to chronic 12-h daily physical restraint for 2 days showed dramatic apoptosis in splenocytes. To identify genes that contribute to the splenocyte apoptosis, we compare gene expression in the spleens of restrained and unstressed mice(More)
Restraint stress, either physical or psychological, can modulate immune function. However, the mechanisms associated with stress-induced lymphocyte reduction remains to be elucidated. We have previously shown that chronic stress induces Fas-mediated lymphocyte reduction. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which restraint stress modulates lymphocyte(More)
It is known that when people generate externalities, a birth also generates an externality and efficiency requires a Pigou tax/subsidy on having children. The size of the externality from a birth is important for studying policy. We calculate the size of this " population externality " in a specific case: we consider a maintained hypothesis that greenhouse(More)
We calculate the harm a birth imposes on others when greenhouse gas emissions are a problem and a cap limits emissions damage. This negative population externality, which equals the corrective Pigovian tax on having a child, is substantial in calibrations. In our base case, the Pigovian tax is 21 percent of a parent's lifetime income in steady state and 5(More)