Charles Spates

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BACKGROUND Many depressed people do not receive help for their symptoms, and there are various barriers that impede help-seeking. The Internet may offer interesting alternatives for reaching and helping people with depression. Depression can be treated effectively with Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), but a short intervention based on(More)
Twenty-three PTSD subjects were exposed to either: (1) standard eye movement desensitization (EMD), (2) a variant of EMD in which eye movements were engendered through a light tracking task, or (3) a variant of EMD in which fixed visual attention replaced eye movements. All three interventions produced significant positive changes in all dependent measures(More)
This study evaluated the efficacy of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral one-session exposure treatment procedures with and without programmed generalization for participants with small animal phobias. Forty participants were randomly assigned to the treatment and generalization conditions. Both treatments produced significant improvements from pre-test to(More)
BACKGROUND Depression and anxiety are common mental health difficulties experienced by university students and can impair academic and social functioning. Students are limited in seeking help from professionals. As university students are highly connected to digital technologies, Web-based and computer-delivered interventions could be used to improve(More)
Three complex cases are presented to document further the broad applicability of eye movement desensitization (EMD) for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the first subject this disorder was combined with panic attacks; in the second, sexual dysfunction was an additional consequence of childhood sexual abuse; and in the third the causative directly(More)
Twenty-seven subjects were exposed to standard Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) treatment or a similar treatment without the explicit cognitive elements found in EMDR. Standardized psychometric assessments were administered (Structured Interview for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Impact of Event Scale, Revised Symptom Checklist-90) by(More)
Trauma is prevalent in the lives of children. It derives from many sources, and, depending on its characteristics, can produce transient or enduring and devastating consequences. Early trauma, if left untreated, can set the stage for chronic deficits in the behavioral repertoires of affected children, and thus shape personality development. Additionally,(More)
More than one-third of treatment-seeking obese patients are clinically depressed. No evidence-based treatments exist for individuals with comorbid depression and obesity. Behavioral activation (BA), an effective treatment for depression, might also facilitate weight loss. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of BA plus(More)
In vivo exposure has become the gold standard treatment for specific phobia. The endogenous opioid system is one mechanism proposed to explain why exposure provides such quick and effective treatment for specific phobia. The effect of naltrexone on fear and avoidance behavior was investigated among 15 specific phobia participants who received exposure(More)
Forty college students suffering from public speaking anxiety and having experienced a specific traumatic speech-related event were exposed to either a standard EMD protocol with eye movements; a moving audio stimulus in place of the eye movements; a protocol with eyes resting on the hands in place of the eye movement, or a no-treatment control condition.(More)