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Many modern software systems are designed to be highly configurable, which increases flexibility but can make programs hard to test, analyze, and understand. We present an initial empirical study of how configuration options affect program behavior. We conjecture that, at certain levels of abstraction, configuration spaces are far smaller than the worst(More)
Software configurability has many benefits, but it also makes programs much harder to test, as in the worst case the program must be tested under every possible configuration. One potential remedy to this problem is combinatorial interaction testing (CIT), in which typically the developer selects a strength t and then computes a covering array containing(More)
Our previous investigation of a patient (pt1) with non-X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M syndrome revealed a CD40-mediated defect in B cell activation that resulted in low CD23 expression and absence of germ-line transcription and class-switch recombination. These deficiencies were complemented in vitro by a high threshold of sustained signaling through CD40.(More)
With the goal of investigating and enhancing anode performance in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, the glass/tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) anodes are modified with a series of robust silane-tethered bis(fluoroaryl)amines to form self-assembled interfacial layers (IFLs). The modified ITO anodes are characterized by contact angle(More)
The ionization potentials (IPs) and electron affinities (EAs) of widely used conjugated polymers are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in conventional electrochemical and lithium-ion battery media, and also by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in vacuo. By comparing the data obtained in the different systems, it is found that the IPs of the(More)
To achieve densely packed charge-selective organosilane-based interfacial layers (IFLs) on the tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) anodes of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells, a series of Ar2N-(CH2)n-SiCl3 precursors with Ar = 3,4-difluorophenyl, n = 3, 6, 10, and 18, was synthesized, characterized, and chemisorbed on OPV anodes to serve as IFLs. To minimize(More)
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