Charles S. Spencer

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WE ARE DEEPLY DISTURBED BY THE RECENT ESCALATION OF POLITICAL ASSAULTS ON SCIENTISTS in general and on climate scientists in particular. All citizens should understand some basic scientifi c facts. There is always some uncertainty associated with scientifi c conclusions; science never absolutely proves anything. When someone says that society should wait(More)
T he origin of the state is one of the leading research problems in anthropology (1–4). Archaeologists have been especially concerned with the state; the earliest cases of state formation occurred long before detailed written records were kept and must be studied archaeologically. Although various theories of state origins have been proposed, researchers(More)
A major research problem in anthropology is the origin of the state and its bureaucratic form of governance. Of particular importance for evaluating theories of state origins are cases of primary state formation, whereby a first-generation state evolves without contact with any preexisting states. A general model of this process, the territorial-expansion(More)
Archaeological investigations during the past two decades in Mexico's Valley of Oaxaca have documented the appearance of key public buildings, such as the royal palace and multiroom temple, associated with the rise of an archaic state at ca. 300-100 B.C. A fuller picture is now emerging from the site of El Palenque, where recent excavations have defined a(More)
Marijan Beg, ∗ Maximilian Albert, Marc-Antonio Bisotti, David Cortés-Ortuño, Weiwei Wang, 2 Rebecca Carey, Mark Vousden, Ondrej Hovorka, Chiara Ciccarelli, Charles S. Spencer, Christopher H. Marrows, and Hans Fangohr † Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom Department of Physics, Ningbo(More)
A. Hrabec,1,* F. J. T. Gonçalves,2,† C. S. Spencer,1 E. Arenholz,3 A. T. N’Diaye,3 R. L. Stamps,2 and Christopher H. Marrows1,‡ 1School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom 2SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom 3Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National(More)
Petrographic analysis of Formative Mexican ceramics by J. B. Stoltman et al. (see the companion piece in this issue of PNAS) refutes a recent model of Olmec "one-way" trade. In this paper, we address the model's more fundamental problems of sampling bias, anthropological implausibility, and logical non sequiturs. No bridging argument exists to link motifs(More)
Interpolity interaction and regional control were central features of all early state societies, taking the form of trade-embedded in political processes to varying degrees-or interregional conquest strategies meant to expand the polity's control or influence over neighboring territories. Cross-cultural analyses of early statecraft suggest that territorial(More)
Recently completed excavations at the site of El Palenque in Mexico's Valley of Oaxaca have recovered the well-preserved remains of a palace complex dated by associated radiocarbon samples and ceramics to the Late Formative period or Late Monte Albán I phase (300-100 BC), the period of archaic state emergence in the region. The El Palenque palace exhibits(More)
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