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Production of bioluminescence theoretically represents a cost, energetic or otherwise, that could slow Vibrio fischeri growth; however, bioluminescence is also thought to enable full symbiotic colonization of the Euprymna scolopes light organ by V. fischeri. Previous tests of these models have proven inconclusive, partly because they compared nonisogenic(More)
CD8+ T cells are crucial for control of a number of medically important protozoan parasites, including Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of human Chagas disease. Yet, in contrast to the wealth of information from viral and bacterial infections, little is known about the antigen specificity or the general development of effector and memory T-cell responses in(More)
CD8(+) T cells are essential for controlling Trypanosoma cruzi infection. During Brazil strain infection, C57BL/6 mice expand parasite-specific CD8(+) T cells recognizing the dominant TSKB20 (ANYKFTLV) and subdominant TSKB74 (VNYDFTLV) trans-sialidase gene (TS)-encoded epitopes with up to 40% of all CD8(+) T cells specific for these epitopes. Although this(More)
IL-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We identified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B, and IL-17C) and six IL-17R genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC, and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologs, and examined their(More)
Trypanosoma cruzi infection drives the expansion of remarkably focused CD8(+) T cell responses targeting epitopes encoded by variant trans-sialidase (TS) genes. Infection of C57BL/6 mice with T. cruzi results in up to 40% of all CD8(+) T cells committed to recognition of the dominant TSKB20 and subdominant TSKB18 TS epitopes. However, despite this enormous(More)
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