Charles S. Morrison

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BACKGROUND Combined oral contraceptives (COC) and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are among the most widely used family planning methods; their effect on HIV acquisition is not known. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of COC and DMPA on HIV acquisition and any modifying effects of other sexually transmitted infections. METHODS This multicenter(More)
BACKGROUND A WHO expert group and the International Planned Parenthood Federation recommend against use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in HIV-1-infected women based on theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased blood loss. We investigated whether the risk of complications after IUD insertion is higher in HIV-1-infected women than in(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying modifiable factors that increase women's vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate the association between intravaginal practices and(More)
Sexually transmitted and other reproductive tract infections. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the(More)
INTRODUCTION It is unknown whether HIV treatment guidelines, based on resource-rich country cohorts, are applicable to African populations. METHODS We estimated CD4 cell loss in ART-naïve, AIDS-free individuals using mixed models allowing for random intercept and slope, and time from seroconversion to clinical AIDS, death and antiretroviral therapy (ART)(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate methods of HIV incidence determination are critically needed to monitor the epidemic and determine the population level impact of prevention trials. One such trial, Project Accept, a Phase III, community-randomized trial, evaluated the impact of enhanced, community-based voluntary counseling and testing on population-level HIV incidence.(More)
UNLABELLED Particular types of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and genital tract infections have been independently associated with risk of HIV-1 acquisition. We examined whether immunity in women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), combined oral contraceptives (COC), or no HCs differs by the presence of cervicovaginal infections.(More)
INTRODUCTION Long-term natural history cohorts of HIV-1 in the absence of treatment provide the best measure of virulence by different viral subtypes. METHODS Newly HIV infected Ugandan and Zimbabwean women (N=303) were recruited and monitored for clinical, social, behavioral, immunological and viral parameters for 3 to 9.5years. RESULTS Ugandan and(More)
Little is known about the differences in clinical manifestations between women with various HIV-1 subtypes during acute (AI) and early (EI) HIV infection. In a longitudinal cohort study, clinical signs and symptoms among Uganda and Zimbabwe women with AI and EI were compared with HIV-negative controls; symptoms were assessed quarterly for 15 to 24 months.(More)
BACKGROUND Vaginal practices (VPs) may increase HIV risk by injuring vaginal epithelium or by increasing risk of bacterial vaginosis, an established risk factor for HIV. METHODS HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (n = 2,185) participating in a prospective study on hormonal contraception and HIV risk completed an ancillary questionnaire capturing detailed VP(More)