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BACKGROUND Combined oral contraceptives (COC) and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are among the most widely used family planning methods; their effect on HIV acquisition is not known. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of COC and DMPA on HIV acquisition and any modifying effects of other sexually transmitted infections. METHODS This multicenter(More)
Hormonal contraceptives are used widely worldwide; their effect on HIV acquisition remains unresolved. We reanalyzed data from the Hormonal Contraception and HIV Study using marginal structural modeling to reduce selection bias due to time-dependent confounding. Replicating our original analysis closely, we found that depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)(More)
BACKGROUND Trichomoniasis vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, with a particularly high prevalence in regions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemicity. However, its impact as a cofactor for HIV acquisition is poorly understood. METHODS Samples from 213 women who experienced HIV seroconversion(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of hormonal contraception including combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and the injectable progestins depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enanthate (Net-En) on the risk of HIV acquisition among women in South Africa. DESIGN/METHODS We analyzed data from 5567 women aged 16-49 years participating in(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-infected women need highly effective contraception to reduce unintended pregnancies and mother-to-child HIV transmission. Previous studies report conflicting results regarding the effect of hormonal contraception on HIV disease progression. METHODS HIV-infected women in Uganda and Zimbabwe were recruited immediately after seroconversion;(More)
This study assesses the effects of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) antibody testing on subsequent (one year) sexual behavior among 270 homosexual men at a Boston community health center, 21 per cent of whom were unaware of their test result. Except for the number of steady partners, the levels of all sexual activities of all groups of study participants(More)
BACKGROUND A WHO expert group and the International Planned Parenthood Federation recommend against use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in HIV-1-infected women based on theoretical concerns about pelvic infection and increased blood loss. We investigated whether the risk of complications after IUD insertion is higher in HIV-1-infected women than in(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether the risk of complications is higher in HIV-1-infected women compared with non-infected women in the two years following insertion of the intrauterine contraceptive device. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. POPULATION Six hundred and forty-nine women (156 HIV-1-infected, 493 non-infected) in Nairobi, Kenya who requested an(More)