Charles S. Morrison

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BACKGROUND Combined oral contraceptives (COC) and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are among the most widely used family planning methods; their effect on HIV acquisition is not known. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of COC and DMPA on HIV acquisition and any modifying effects of other sexually transmitted infections. METHODS This multicenter(More)
Hormonal contraceptives are used widely worldwide; their effect on HIV acquisition remains unresolved. We reanalyzed data from the Hormonal Contraception and HIV Study using marginal structural modeling to reduce selection bias due to time-dependent confounding. Replicating our original analysis closely, we found that depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)(More)
BACKGROUND Trichomoniasis vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, with a particularly high prevalence in regions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemicity. However, its impact as a cofactor for HIV acquisition is poorly understood. METHODS Samples from 213 women who experienced HIV seroconversion(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of hormonal contraception including combined oral contraceptives (COCs), and the injectable progestins depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone enanthate (Net-En) on the risk of HIV acquisition among women in South Africa. DESIGN/METHODS We analyzed data from 5567 women aged 16-49 years participating in(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate interrelationships between bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal yeast, vaginal practices (cleansing and drying/tightening), mucosal inflammation, and HIV acquisition. METHODS A multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted, enrolling 4531 HIV-negative women aged 18 to 35 years attending family planning clinics in(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Several previous studies have suggested that hormonal contraception could be associated with increased risk of cervical infections. However, few high-quality prospective studies have examined this relationship. GOAL The goal of this study was to measure the effect of oral contraceptives (OC) and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate(More)
OBJECTIVE : To estimate the effects of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) on HIV acquisition among Zimbabwean and Ugandan women. METHODS : A multicenter prospective observational cohort study enrolled 4439 HIV-uninfected women aged 18 to 35 attending family planning clinics in Zimbabwe and Uganda. Participants were interviewed, and tested for HIV and(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether male circumcision of the primary sex partner is associated with women's risk of HIV. DESIGN Data were analyzed from 4417 Ugandan and Zimbabwean women participating in a prospective study of hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition. Most were recruited from family planning clinics; some in Uganda were referred from higher-risk(More)
A key question for clinicians is whether an aetiological association exists between highly effective contraceptive methods and women's risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The authors searched the peer-reviewed literature for prospective studies published from January 1966 to August 2008(More)
OBJECTIVE Several studies have suggested that pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. We used data from a large, prospective study of hormonal contraception and HIV-1 to evaluate the effect of pregnancy on the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. DESIGN A multicenter prospective cohort study. METHODS We examined 4439 women from family(More)