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We sought to describe cerebrovascular responses to incremental exercise and test the hypothesis that changes in cerebral oxygenation influence maximal performance. Eleven men cycled in three conditions: 1) sea level (SL); 2) acute hypoxia [AH; hypobaric chamber, inspired Po(2) (Pi(O(2))) 86 Torr]; and 3) chronic hypoxia [CH; 4,300 m, Pi(O(2)) 86 Torr]. At(More)
BACKGROUND Exercise performance data of numerous altitude research studies and competitive sporting events of the last four decades are reviewed. METHODS The primary focus is on the wide interindividual variation associated with maximal and submaximal exercise performance that occurs at different altitudes and for different periods of time at altitude. (More)
Progressive body weight loss occurs during high mountain expeditions, but whether it is due to hypoxia, inadequate diet, malabsorption, or the multiple stresses of the harsh environment is unknown. To determine whether hypoxia due to decompression causes weight loss, six men, provided with a palatable ad libitum diet, were studied during progressive(More)
There is an expectation that repeated daily exposures to normobaric hypoxia (NH) will induce ventilatory acclimatization and lessen acute mountain sickness (AMS) and the exercise performance decrement during subsequent hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure. However, this notion has not been tested objectively. Healthy, unacclimatized sea-level (SL) residents(More)
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) commonly occurs at altitudes exceeding 2000-2500 m and usually resolves after acclimatization induced by a few days of chronic residence at the same altitude. Increased ventilation and diuresis may contribute to the reduction in AMS with altitude acclimatization. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of(More)
Using an exercise device that integrates maximal voluntary static contraction (MVC) of knee extensor muscles with dynamic knee extension, we compared progressive muscle fatigue, i.e., rate of decline in force-generating capacity, in normoxia (758 Torr) and hypobaric hypoxia (464 Torr). Eight healthy men performed exhaustive constant work rate knee extension(More)
INTRODUCTION Hypobaric hypoxia and heightened metabolic rate increase free radical production. PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that antioxidant supplementation would reduce oxidative stress associated with increased energy expenditure (negative energy balance) at high altitude (HA 4300 m). METHODS For 12 d at sea level (SL), 18 active men were fed a(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether cycling time trial (TT) performance differs between hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) at the same ambient PO2 (93 mmHg, 4,300-m altitude equivalent). Two groups of healthy fit men were matched on physical performance and demographic characteristics and completed a 720-kJ time trial on a(More)
High-altitude anorexia leads to a hormonal response pattern modulated by both hypoxia and caloric restriction (CR). The purpose of this study was to compare altitude-induced neuroendocrine changes with or without energy imbalance and to explore how energy sufficiency alters the endocrine acclimatization process. Twenty-six normal-weight, young men were(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine if caffeine (CAF) could enhance exercise performance at high altitude (HA). Eight males (17 to 24 years) performed two submaximal endurance tests to exhaustion (ETX) while cycling at approximately 80% of their altitude-specific maximal aerobic power during each of three phases: 1) sea level (SL); 2) after 1 h(More)