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BACKGROUND Vitamin D has potent anticancer properties, especially against digestive-system cancers. Many human studies have used geographic residence as a marker of solar ultraviolet B and hence vitamin D exposure. Here, we considered multiple determinants of vitamin D exposure (dietary and supplementary vitamin D, skin pigmentation, adiposity, geographic(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated signalling and angiogenesis can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. We aimed to assess whether ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody VEGFR-2 antagonist, prolonged survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer. METHODS We did an(More)
PURPOSE This phase III study compared the safety and efficacy of the following three different irinotecan-containing regimens in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: irinotecan plus infusional fluorouracil (FU)/leucovorin (LV) (FOLFIRI), irinotecan plus bolus FU/LV (mIFL), and irinotecan plus oral capecitabine (CapeIRI). PATIENTS AND(More)
BACKGROUND A family history of colorectal cancer is recognized as a risk factor for the disease. However, as a result of the retrospective design of prior studies, the strength of this association is uncertain, particularly as it is influenced by characteristics of the person at risk and the affected family members. METHODS We conducted a prospective(More)
Aberrant activation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway occurs in almost all colorectal cancers and contributes to their growth, invasion and survival. Although dysregulated beta-catenin activity drives colon tumorigenesis, further genetic perturbations are required to elaborate full malignant transformation. To identify genes that both modulate(More)
PURPOSE Three agents with differing mechanisms of action are available for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin. In this study, we compared the activity and toxicity of three different two-drug combinations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who had not been treated previously for advanced disease. (More)
BACKGROUND Postmenopausal hormone therapy has both benefits and hazards, including decreased risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease and an increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS We examined the relation between the use of postmenopausal hormones and mortality among participants in the Nurses' Health Study, who were 30 to 55 years of age at(More)
Genome-wide DNA hypomethylation plays has an important role in genomic instability and colorectal carcinogenesis. However, the relationship between cellular DNA methylation level and patient outcome remains uncertain. Using 643 colon cancers in two independent prospective cohorts, we quantified DNA methylation in repetitive long interspersed nucleotide(More)
Predictors of colorectal cancer have been extensively studied with some evidence suggesting that risk factors vary by subsite. Using data from 2 prospective cohort studies, we examined established risk factors to determine whether they were differentially associated with colon and rectal cancer. Our study population included 87,733 women from the Nurses'(More)