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BACKGROUND Vitamin D has potent anticancer properties, especially against digestive-system cancers. Many human studies have used geographic residence as a marker of solar ultraviolet B and hence vitamin D exposure. Here, we considered multiple determinants of vitamin D exposure (dietary and supplementary vitamin D, skin pigmentation, adiposity, geographic(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated signalling and angiogenesis can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. We aimed to assess whether ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody VEGFR-2 antagonist, prolonged survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer. METHODS We did an(More)
BACKGROUND A family history of colorectal cancer is recognized as a risk factor for the disease. However, as a result of the retrospective design of prior studies, the strength of this association is uncertain, particularly as it is influenced by characteristics of the person at risk and the affected family members. METHODS We conducted a prospective(More)
PURPOSE This phase III study compared the safety and efficacy of the following three different irinotecan-containing regimens in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: irinotecan plus infusional fluorouracil (FU)/leucovorin (LV) (FOLFIRI), irinotecan plus bolus FU/LV (mIFL), and irinotecan plus oral capecitabine (CapeIRI). PATIENTS AND(More)
PURPOSE Three agents with differing mechanisms of action are available for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin. In this study, we compared the activity and toxicity of three different two-drug combinations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who had not been treated previously for advanced disease. (More)
BACKGROUND Postmenopausal hormone therapy has both benefits and hazards, including decreased risks of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease and an increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS We examined the relation between the use of postmenopausal hormones and mortality among participants in the Nurses' Health Study, who were 30 to 55 years of age at(More)
BACKGROUND The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), characterised by widespread promoter methylation, is associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer. The independent effect of CIMP, MSI and BRAF mutation on prognosis remains uncertain. METHODS Utilising 649 colon cancers (stage I-IV) in two independent cohort(More)
An expression vector was modified to permit the rapid synthesis of purified, 32P-labeled, glutathione S-transferase (GST)-retinoblastoma (RB) fusion proteins. The products were used to screen lambda gt11 expression libraries, from which we cloned a cDNA encoding a polypeptide (RBAP-1) capable of binding directly to a putative functional domain (the pocket)(More)
Aberrant activation of the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway occurs in almost all colorectal cancers and contributes to their growth, invasion and survival. Although dysregulated beta-catenin activity drives colon tumorigenesis, further genetic perturbations are required to elaborate full malignant transformation. To identify genes that both modulate(More)