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Warfarin is an effective, commonly prescribed anticoagulant used to treat and prevent thrombotic events. Because of historically high rates of drug-associated adverse events, warfarin remains underprescribed. Further, interindividual variability in therapeutic dose mandates frequent monitoring until target anticoagulation is achieved. Genetic polymorphisms(More)
Knowledge of pharmacogenetics may help clinicians predict their patients' therapeutic dose of warfarin, thereby decreasing the risk of bleeding during warfarin initiation. Our goal was to use pharmacogenetics to develop an algorithm that uses genetic, clinical, and demographic factors to estimate the warfarin dose a priori. We collected a blood sample,(More)
Cytochrome P-450 2C9 (CYP2C9) polymorphisms (CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3) reduce the clearance of warfarin, increase the risk of bleeding, and prolong the time to stable dosing. Whether prospective use of a retrospectively developed algorithm that incorporates CYP2C9 genotype and nongenetic factors can ameliorate the propensity to bleeding and delay in achieving(More)
BACKGROUND This case conference reviews laboratory methods for assessing oxygenation status: arterial blood gases, pulse oximetry, and CO-oximetry. Caveats of these measurements are discussed in the context of two methemoglobinemia cases. CASES Case 1 is a woman who presented with increased shortness of breath, productive cough, chest pain, nausea, fever,(More)
BACKGROUND The management of warfarin therapy is complicated by a wide variation among patients in drug response. Variants in the gene encoding vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) may affect the response to warfarin. METHODS We conducted a retrospective study of European-American patients receiving long-term warfarin maintenance therapy.(More)
Initiation of warfarin therapy using trial-and-error dosing is problematic. Our goal was to develop and validate a pharmacogenetic algorithm. In the derivation cohort of 1,015 participants, the independent predictors of therapeutic dose were: VKORC1 polymorphism -1639/3673 G>A (-28% per allele), body surface area (BSA) (+11% per 0.25 m(2)), CYP2C9(*)3 (-33%(More)
BACKGROUND The clinical utility of genotype-guided (pharmacogenetically based) dosing of warfarin has been tested only in small clinical trials or observational studies, with equivocal results. METHODS We randomly assigned 1015 patients to receive doses of warfarin during the first 5 days of therapy that were determined according to a dosing algorithm(More)
Warfarin demonstrates a wide interindividual variability in response that is mediated partly by variants in cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1). It is not known whether variants in calumenin (CALU) (vitamin K reductase regulator) have an influence on warfarin dose requirements. We resequenced CALU(More)
BACKGROUND Warfarin is commonly prescribed for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolism after orthopedic surgery. During warfarin initiation, out-of-range International Normalized Ratio (INR) values and adverse events are common. METHODS In orthopedic patients beginning warfarin therapy, we developed and prospectively validated pharmacogenetic and(More)
  • C Eby
  • 2013
The introduction of several oral direct anticoagulants within the past 2-3 years has dramatically changed clinical practice and has also impacted on utilization and interpretation of coagulation laboratory testing. This article reviews the effects of the oral thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, and the oral factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban, on(More)