Charles Robert Horsburgh

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BACKGROUND Treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is an essential component of tuberculosis control and elimination. The current standard regimen of isoniazid for 9 months is efficacious but is limited by toxicity and low rates of treatment completion. METHODS We conducted an open-label, randomized noninferiority trial comparing 3 months(More)
BACKGROUND The prevention of active tuberculosis through the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a major element of the national strategy for eliminating tuberculosis in the United States. Targeted treatment for persons who are at the highest risk for reactivation tuberculosis will be needed to achieve this goal. A more precise assessment of the(More)
Recent reports have suggested increases in Buruli ulcer (BU), an infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans in west Africa. In 1991, we conducted surveillance for BU in a rural area of Cote d'Ivoire and identified 312 cases of active or healed ulceration. A case-control study was then performed to investigate risk factors for this infection. The rate of(More)
RATIONALE To improve the effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) control programs in the United States by identifying cost-effective priorities for screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). OBJECTIVES To estimate the cost-effectiveness of LTBI screening using the tuberculin skin test (TST)and interferon-g release assays (IGRAs). METHODS A Markov(More)
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is diminished in patients infected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the effect of HIV/HCV coinfection on HRQOL is unknown. We compared the HRQOL of urban HIV/HCV coinfected patients with that of patients infected with either HCV or HIV alone. We then compared the 3 groups(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to determine the prevalence of active tuberculosis among ambulatory HIV-infected persons in Tanzania with CD4 cell counts of > or =200 cells/mm3 and a bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination scar. METHODS Subjects who volunteered for a tuberculosis booster vaccine trial were screened for active tuberculosis by obtainment of a history,(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) is essential for preventing TB in North America, but acceptance and completion of this treatment have not been systematically assessed. METHODS We performed a retrospective, randomized two-stage cross-sectional survey of treatment and completion of LTBI at public and private clinics in 19 regions of the(More)
SETTING A public tuberculosis (TB) referral hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. OBJECTIVE To present treatment outcomes of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) patients and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection with and without highly active antiretroviral therapy. METHODS Retrospective cohort study. Eligible(More)
Although most diseases due to pathogenic mycobacteria are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several other mycobacterial diseases-caused by M. ulcerans (Buruli ulcer), M. marinum, and M. haemophilum-have begun to emerge. We review the emergence of diseases caused by these three pathogens in the United States and around the world in the last decade. We(More)
Thirteen cases of disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) seen at the National Jewish Hospital and Research Center and 24 cases from the literature were analyzed to define clinical and therapeutic features of the disease. Disseminated MAI infection was a disease of immunocompromised and apparently normal hosts. It was acquired(More)