Charles Richardson

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Different types of microcarriers were assessed for the large-scale culture of influenza virus in the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Both porous and solid carriers were examined. A higher titre of influenza A/PR8/34 virus was recovered from cultures using solid (1.3x10(9) PFU per ml) rather than porous carriers (4.0x10(8) PFU per ml). High titres of(More)
Influenza-pseudotyped Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced via the expression of influenza hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and the murine leukemia virus Gag product in the baculovirus-insect cell expression system. Hemagglutination specific activities of sucrose gradient-purified VLPs were similar to those of egg-grown influenza viruses but(More)
BACKGROUND Noroviruses cause epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. No vaccine is available to prevent norovirus illness or infection. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an investigational, intranasally delivered norovirus viruslike particle(More)
Fabrication of acrylic cranial implants by conventional methods of moulage and mold formation may be difficult when the margin of the defect cannot be accurately detected. Three-dimensional anatomic models built by fused deposition modeling can serve as templates for the fabrication of custom acrylic implants for large or complicated cranial defects.(More)
Noroviruses, a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, present antigenic diversity that must be considered for the development of an effective vaccine. In this study, we explored approaches to increase the broad reactivity of virus-like particle (VLP) norovirus vaccine candidates. The immunogenicity of a GII.4 "Consensus" VLP that was engineered(More)
An intranasal vaccine targeting the Bacillus anthracis toxin and vegetative bacterium was tested for the ability to protect immunized rabbits against aerosol B. anthracis spore exposure. Rabbits were vaccinated intranasally with PA-based vaccines formulated as dry powders with or without chitosan (ChiSys, Archimedes Development Limited), a compound that(More)
BACKGROUND Noroviruses cause significant morbidity and mortality from acute gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. METHODS We conducted 2 phase 1 double-blind, controlled studies of a virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine derived from norovirus GI.1 genotype adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the mucoadherent chitosan. Healthy subjects(More)
BACKGROUND Human noroviruses (NoVs) are the primary cause of acute gastroenteritis and are characterized by antigenic variation between genogroups and genotypes and antigenic drift of strains within the predominant GII.4 genotype. In the context of this diversity, an effective NoV vaccine must elicit broadly protective immunity. We used an antibody (Ab)(More)