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We have implemented an application-independent collaboration manager, called Collagen, based on the SharedPlan theory of discourse, and used it to build a software interface agent for a simple air travel application. The software agent provides intelligent, mixed initiative assistance without requiring natural language understanding. A key benefit of the(More)
This paper explores the concept of engagement, the process by which individuals in an interaction start, maintain and end their perceived connection to one another. The paper reports on one aspect of engagement among human interactors—the effects of tracking faces during an interaction. It also provides details for an architecture of a robot that can(More)
We describe an approach to intelligent user interfaces based on the idea of making the computer a collaborator, and an application-independent technology for implementing such interfaces. AI Magazine, Special Issue on Intelligent User Interfaces, to appear in 2001 This work may not be copied or reproduced in whole or in part for any commercial purpose.(More)
We take the position that autonomous agents, when they interact with people, should be governed by the same principles that underlie human collaboration. These principles come from research in computational linguistics, specifically collaborative discourse theory, which describes how people communicate and coordinate their activities in the context of(More)
Based on a study of the engagement process between humans, we have developed and implemented an initial computational model for recognizing engagement between a human and a humanoid robot. Our model contains recognizers for four types of connection events involving gesture and speech: directed gaze, mutual facial gaze, conversational adjacency pairs and(More)
This paper addresses the issue of designing embodied conversational agents that exhibit appropriate posture shifts during dialogues with human users. Previous research has noted the importance of hand gestures, eye gaze and head nods in conversations between embodied agents and humans. We present an analysis of human monologues and dialogues that suggests(More)
Psychological experiments have shown that programmers tend to use the same structure over and over. The authors call these commonly used programming structures 'cliches'. They describe a prototype, the Recognizer, that automatically finds all occurrences of a given set of cliches in a program and builds a hierarchical description of the program in terms of(More)