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We have implemented an application-independent collaboration manager, called Colla-gen, based on the SharedPlan theory of discourse, and used it to build a software interface agent for a simple air travel application. The software agent provides intelligent, mixed initiative assistance without requiring natural language understanding. A key benefit of the(More)
We describe an approach to intelligent user interfaces based on the idea of making the computer a collaborator, and an application-independent technology for implementing such interfaces. This work may not be copied or reproduced in whole or in part for any commercial purpose. Permission to copy in whole or in part without payment of fee is granted for(More)
This paper addresses the issue of designing embodied conversational agents that exhibit appropriate posture shifts during dialogues with human users. Previous research has noted the importance of hand gestures, eye gaze and head nods in conversations between embodied agents and humans. We present an analysis of human monologues and dialogues that suggests(More)
Based on a study of the engagement process between humans, we have developed and implemented an initial computational model for recognizing engagement between a human and a humanoid robot. Our model contains recognizers for four types of connection events involving gesture and speech: directed gaze, mutual facial gaze, conversational adjacency pairs and(More)
This paper explores the concept of engagement, the process by which individuals in an interaction start, maintain and end their perceived connection to one another. The paper reports on one aspect of engagement among human interactors—the effects of tracking faces during an interaction. It also provides details for an architecture of a robot that can(More)
Task models are used in many areas of computer science including planning, intelligent tutoring, plan recognition, interface design, and decision theory. However, developing task models is a significant practical challenge. We present a task model development environment centered around a machine learning engine that infers task models from examples. A(More)
We have developed an application-independent toolkit, called Collagen, based on the SharedPlan theory of col-laborative discourse, in which interaction histories are hierarchically structured according to a user's goals and intentions. We have used Collagen to implement an example collaborative interface agent with discourse processing , but not natural(More)
We have developed a novel methodology combining hierarchical task networks with traditional dialogue trees that both partially automates dialogue authoring and improves the degree of dialogue structure reuse. The key to this methodology is a lightweight utterance semantics derived from collaborative discourse theory, making it a step towards dialogue(More)
Research on intelligent tutoring systems has not leveraged general models of collaborative discourse, even though tutoring is inherently collabora-tive. Similarly, research on collaborative discourse theory has rarely addressed tu-torial issues, even though teaching and learning are important components of collaboration. We help bridge the gap between these(More)