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We have implemented an application-independent collaboration manager, called Colla-gen, based on the SharedPlan theory of discourse, and used it to build a software interface agent for a simple air travel application. The software agent provides intelligent, mixed initiative assistance without requiring natural language understanding. A key benefit of the(More)
This paper addresses the issue of designing embodied conversational agents that exhibit appropriate posture shifts during dialogues with human users. Previous research has noted the importance of hand gestures, eye gaze and head nods in conversations between embodied agents and humans. We present an analysis of human monologues and dialogues that suggests(More)
This paper explores the concept of engagement, the process by which individuals in an interaction start, maintain and end their perceived connection to one another. The paper reports on one aspect of engagement among human interactors—the effects of tracking faces during an interaction. It also provides details for an architecture of a robot that can(More)
We describe an approach to intelligent user interfaces based on the idea of making the computer a collaborator, and an application-independent technology for implementing such interfaces. This work may not be copied or reproduced in whole or in part for any commercial purpose. Permission to copy in whole or in part without payment of fee is granted for(More)
Based on a study of the engagement process between humans, we have developed and implemented an initial computational model for recognizing engagement between a human and a humanoid robot. Our model contains recognizers for four types of connection events involving gesture and speech: directed gaze, mutual facial gaze, conversational adjacency pairs and(More)
Task models are used in many areas of computer science including planning, intelligent tutoring, plan recognition, interface design, and decision theory. However, developing task models is a significant practical challenge. We present a task model development environment centered around a machine learning engine that infers task models from examples. A(More)