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BACKGROUND Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a(More)
Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Even though this type of malaria is most common in children living in sub-Saharan Africa, it should be considered in anybody with impaired consciousness that has recently travelled in a malaria-endemic area. Cerebral malaria has few specific features, but there(More)
Language disorders have been reported after severe falciparum malaria but the deficits have not been described in detail. We assessed language outcome in three groups of children aged 6 to 9 years (n=487): those previously admitted to Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya, with cerebral malaria (CM; n=152; mean age 7y 4 mo [SD 1y 1mo]; 77 males, 75 females); or(More)
BACKGROUND Few large-scale studies of epilepsy have been done in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of, treatment gap in, and possible risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy in Kenyan people aged 6 years or older living in a rural area. METHODS We undertook a three-phase screening survey of 151,408 individuals followed by a(More)
PURPOSE To estimate the burden of lifetime epilepsy (LTE) and active epilepsy (AE) and examine the influence of study characteristics on prevalence estimates. METHODS We searched online databases and identified articles using prespecified criteria. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate the median prevalence in developed countries and in urban(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of accident and emergency (A&E) staff towards patients who self-harm through laceration. METHODS We developed a questionnaire using focus group methodology. Questionnaires were distributed to 117 A&E staff members. RESULTS Of the staff, 53.8% responded. The staff believed that(More)
OBJECTIVES There is little information on the characteristics of persisting impairments associated with severe forms of falciparum malaria. Previous work has suggested the existence of a group of children with particularly poor performance on neurocognitive assessments in the context of average group performance. The aim of this study was to provide a(More)
BACKGROUND Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the definition and measurement of these weights. Our(More)
BACKGROUND The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with(More)