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(25"om the [PatAological Laborectory of the l~tslt iIYedwal College.) there appeared an article by B. R. Schenck " On Refractory Subcu-taneous Abscesses caused by a Fungns possibly related to the Sporo-trieha." "The primary point of infection was on the index finger, whence it extended up the radial side of the arm, following the lymph channels, and giving(More)
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) regulates inflammation, immunosuppression, and wound-healing cascades, but it remains unclear whether any of these functions involve regulation of myeloid cell function. The present study demonstrates that selective deletion of TGF-βRII expression in myeloid phagocytes i) impairs macrophage-mediated suppressor activity,(More)
T cell proliferation and survival are regulated by the cytokine receptor common gamma-chain-associated cytokines IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15, while IL-4, another gamma-chain-associated cytokine, is thought to primarily affect T cell quality rather than quantity. In contrast, our experiments reveal that endogenously produced IL-4 is a direct, nonredundant, and(More)
Th2 cells drive protective immunity against most parasitic helminths, but few mechanisms have been demonstrated that facilitate pathogen clearance. We show that IL-4 and IL-13 protect against intestinal lumen-dwelling worms primarily by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule (RELM)(More)
BACKGROUND The related T(H)2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 are produced during allergic responses, signal through receptors that contain IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) alpha, and promote allergic inflammation by activating signal transducer and activator of transcription 6. IL-4 promotes T(H)2 response induction, and IL-13 is necessary and sufficient to induce airways(More)
The cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta regulate immunity and inflammation. IL-10 is known to suppress the extent of hepatic damage caused by parasite ova during natural infection with Schistosoma mansoni, but the role of TGF-beta is less clear. Cytokine blockade studies in mice revealed that anti-IL-10R mAb treatment during acute infection modestly increased(More)
The molecular mechanisms that drive mucosal T helper type 2 (T(H)2) responses against parasitic helminths and allergens remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that TFF2 (trefoil factor 2), an epithelial cell-derived repair molecule, is needed for the control of lung injury caused by the hookworm parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and for(More)
Alternatively activated macrophages prevent lethal intestinal pathology caused by worm ova in mice infected with the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni through mechanisms that are currently unclear. This study demonstrates that arginase I (Arg I), a major product of IL-4- and IL-13-induced alternatively activated macrophages, prevents cachexia,(More)
Production of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 is increased in both human asthma and mouse asthma models, and Stat6 activation by the common IL-4/IL-13R drives most mouse model pathophysiology, including airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). However, the precise cellular mechanisms through which IL-4Rα induces AHR remain unclear. Overzealous bronchial smooth muscle(More)
Chemotaxis promotes neutrophil participation in cellular defense by enabling neutrophil migration to infected tissue and is controlled by persistent cell polarization. One long-standing question of neutrophil polarity has been how the pseudopod and the uropod are coordinated. In our previous report, we suggested that Rho GTPase Cdc42 controls neutrophil(More)