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Retinal ganglion cells that respond selectively to a dark spot on a brighter background (OFF cells) have smaller dendritic fields than their ON counterparts and are more numerous. OFF cells also branch more densely, and thus collect more synapses per visual angle. That the retina devotes more resources to processing dark contrasts predicts that natural(More)
Retinal ganglion cells of a given type overlap their dendritic fields such that every point in space is covered by three to four cells. We investigated what function is served by such extensive overlap. Recording from pairs of ON or OFF brisk-transient ganglion cells at photopic intensities, we confirmed that this overlap causes the Gaussian receptive field(More)
Here we introduce a database of calibrated natural images publicly available through an easy-to-use web interface. Using a Nikon D70 digital SLR camera, we acquired about six-megapixel images of Okavango Delta of Botswana, a tropical savanna habitat similar to where the human eye is thought to have evolved. Some sequences of images were captured(More)
Cones with peak sensitivity to light at long (L), medium (M) and short (S) wavelengths are unequal in number on the human retina: S cones are rare (<10%) while increasing in fraction from center to periphery, and the L/M cone proportions are highly variable between individuals. What optical properties of the eye, and statistical properties of natural(More)
OBJECTIVE Here we investigate ganglion cell physiology in healthy and degenerating retina to test its influence on threshold to electrical stimulation. APPROACH Age-related Macular Degeneration and Retinitis Pigmentosa cause blindness via outer retinal degeneration. Inner retinal pathways that transmit visual information to the central brain remain(More)
Ribbon synapses mediate continuous release in neurons that have graded voltage responses. While mammalian retinas can signal visual flicker at 80-100 Hz, the time constant, τ, for the refilling of a depleted vesicle release pool at cone photoreceptor ribbons is 0.7-1.1 s. Due to this prolonged depression, the mechanism for encoding high temporal frequencies(More)
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