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PURPOSE To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists convened an international Expert Panel that(More)
BACKGROUND Tumorigenic breast cancer cells that express high levels of CD44 and low or undetectable levels of CD24 (CD44(>)/CD24(>/low)) may be resistant to chemotherapy and therefore responsible for cancer relapse. These tumorigenic cancer cells can be isolated from breast cancer biopsies and propagated as mammospheres in vitro. In this study, we aimed to(More)
PURPOSE Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a newer technique for assessing the estrogen receptor (ER) status of breast cancers, with the potential to overcome many of the shortcomings associated with the traditional ligand-binding assay (LBA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of ER status determination by IHC, compared with LBA, to predict(More)
BACKGROUND Patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen whose tumors express high levels of both HER2/neu (HER2) and the estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator AIB1 often develop tamoxifen resistance. We used a breast cancer model system with high expression of AIB1 and HER2 to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying this resistance. METHODS MCF-7 breast(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, prognosis and survival after the diagnosis of breast cancer is poorer among black patients and, to a lesser extent, among Hispanic patients, compared with white patients. Patients who are black or Hispanic have been reported to present with higher stage or more advanced disease. Even after adjusting for stage, however,(More)
BACKGROUND AIB1 (SRC-3) is an estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator that, when overexpressed in cultured cells, can reduce the antagonist activity of tamoxifen-bound ERs. Signaling through the HER-2 receptor pathway activates AIB1 by phosphorylation. To determine whether high AIB1 expression alone or together with HER-2 reduces the effectiveness of tamoxifen(More)
The recent discovery of a second estrogen receptor (ER), designated ERbeta, raises pressing questions about its role in estrogen regulation of human breast cancer cells and its significance for the prediction of recurrence and treatment responses in clinical breast cancer. Most of what we know about ERbeta expression comes from studies examining a limited(More)
Univariate and multivariate analyses of potential prognostic factors for 1,015 women with recurrent breast cancer confirmed that the site of initial recurrence is an important determinant for predicting survival from the time of initial recurrence. However, both estrogen receptor (ER) status and axillary lymph node status at diagnosis, as well as the length(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic chemotherapy for operable breast cancer substantially decreases the risk of death. Patients often have de novo resistance or incomplete response to docetaxel, one of the most active agents in this disease. We postulated that gene expression profiles of the primary breast cancer can predict the response to docetaxel. METHODS We took(More)
PURPOSE To compare the efficacy and tolerability of fulvestrant (formerly ICI 182,780) with anastrozole in the treatment of advanced breast cancer in patients whose disease progresses on prior endocrine treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study, postmenopausal patients were randomized to receive either an(More)