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The purpose of our studies was to determine the effects of muscarinic receptor agonists on conditioned avoidance responding in the rat. Rats were trained to avoid or escape an electric shock delivered to the feet in a discrete trial procedure. The muscarinic receptor agonists pilocarpine and [2-ethyl-8-methyl-2,8-diazaspiro(4. 5)decane-1,3-dione](More)
Xanomeline [3(3-hexyloxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1- methylpyridine] has been evaluated as a muscarinic receptor agonist. In vitro, xanomeline had high affinity for muscarinic receptors in brain homogenates, but had substantially less or no affinity for a number of other neurotransmitter receptors and uptake sites. In cells stably(More)
The κ-opioid receptor is a widely expressed G-protein-coupled receptor that has been implicated in biological responses to pain, stress, anxiety, and depression, and its potential as a therapeutic target in these syndromes is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the prototypical selective κ-opioid antagonists have very long durations of action that have(More)
LY255582 is a pan opioid selective receptor antagonist that has been shown to have high affinity for mu, delta, and kappa receptors in vitro. In order to better understand the in vivo opioid receptor selectivity of LY255582, we developed in vivo receptor occupancy assays in the rat for the opioid mu, kappa and delta receptors using the occupancy tracers(More)
Activation of muscarinic m1 receptors which are coupled to the phosphoinositide (PI) second messenger transduction system is the initial objective of cholinergic replacement therapy in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, we evaluated the ability of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist (SMRA) xanomeline to stimulate in vivo phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and(More)
(5R,6R)6-(3-propylthio-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1-azabicyclo[3 .2.1]octane (PTAC) is a potent muscarinic receptor ligand with high affinity for central muscarinic receptors and no or substantially less affinity for a large number of other receptors or binding sites including dopamine receptors. The ligand exhibits partial agonist effects at muscarinic M2 and(More)
Xanomeline [3(3-hexyloxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1-me thylpyridine)] was evaluated in vivo in rat brain for effects on neurotransmitter turnover and inhibition of ex vivo binding of muscarinic radioligands. Xanomeline produced dose-related increases in the metabolite of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), in striatum. The(More)
The role of muscarinic receptors in schizophrenia was investigated using the muscarinic agonist PTAC. PTAC was highly selective for muscarinic receptors, was a partial agonist at muscarinic M2/M4 receptors and an antagonist at M1, M3 and M5 receptors. PTAC was highly active in animal models predictive of antipsychotic behavior including inhibition of(More)
Kappa opioid receptors and their endogenous neuropeptide ligand, dynorphin A, are densely localized in limbic and cortical areas comprising the brain reward system, and appear to play a key role in modulating stress and mood. Growing literature indicates that kappa receptor antagonists may be beneficial in the treatment of mood and addictive disorders.(More)
Butylthio[2.2.2] (LY297802 / NNC11-1053) is a mixed muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist/antagonist that produces antinociception in mice and rats. As such, butylthio[2.2.2] may have therapeutic utility in the treatment of pain. Butylthio[2.2.2] was fully efficacious in the mouse grid shock, writhing, tail-flick and hot plate tests with ED50 values(More)