Charles Mitch

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Xanomeline [3(3-hexyloxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1- methylpyridine] has been evaluated as a muscarinic receptor agonist. In vitro, xanomeline had high affinity for muscarinic receptors in brain homogenates, but had substantially less or no affinity for a number of other neurotransmitter receptors and uptake sites. In cells stably(More)
Activation of muscarinic m1 receptors which are coupled to the phosphoinositide (PI) second messenger transduction system is the initial objective of cholinergic replacement therapy in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, we evaluated the ability of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist (SMRA) xanomeline to stimulate in vivo phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and(More)
Kappa opioid receptors and their endogenous neuropeptide ligand, dynorphin A, are densely localized in limbic and cortical areas comprising the brain reward system, and appear to play a key role in modulating stress and mood. Growing literature indicates that kappa receptor antagonists may be beneficial in the treatment of mood and addictive disorders.(More)
The κ-opioid receptor is a widely expressed G-protein-coupled receptor that has been implicated in biological responses to pain, stress, anxiety, and depression, and its potential as a therapeutic target in these syndromes is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the prototypical selective κ-opioid antagonists have very long durations of action that have(More)
The purpose of our studies was to determine the effects of muscarinic receptor agonists on conditioned avoidance responding in the rat. Rats were trained to avoid or escape an electric shock delivered to the feet in a discrete trial procedure. The muscarinic receptor agonists pilocarpine and [2-ethyl-8-methyl-2,8-diazaspiro(4. 5)decane-1,3-dione](More)
Complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding human beta-amyloid precursor protein familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) Swedish mutant (beta APPSM) form was cloned into a mammalian expression vector (PK255) containing the CMV promoter. The vector was transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells containing human muscarinic m1 receptors (CHO-m1), and clonal cells stably(More)
The analgesic effects of a series of muscarinic agonists were investigated by use of the mouse acetic acid writhing, grid-shock, hot-plate and tail-flick tests. The compounds tested were oxotremorine, pilocarpine, arecoline, aceclidine, RS86 and four 3-3(substituted-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahy-dro-1 -methyl pyridines (substituted TZTP), these(More)
The functionally selective M1 agonist xanomeline, which is currently undergoing clinical trials as a therapy for Alzheimer's disease, was compared to the muscarinic agonist carbachol for effects on secretion of soluble amyloid precursor protein (APPs) from Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the human m1 receptor (CHO-m1). Release of APPs from(More)
Butylthio[2.2.2] ((+)-(S)-3-(4-(Butylthio)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl)-1-azabicyclo[2.2. 2] octane) is an agonist/antagonist at muscarinic receptors. The analgesic potential of butylthio[2.2.2] was assessed in the mouse by use of the grid-shock, tail-flick, hotplate and writhing tests. The ED50 values ranged from 0.19 to 1.47 mg/kg and 1.51 to 12.23 mg/kg 30 min(More)
In an attempt to improve upon the M1 agonist activity of the selective M1 agonist xanomeline and related compounds, the M1 muscarinic efficacies and potencies of 3- and 6-substituted pyrazinylazacycles were varied by changing both the 3- and 6-substituents as well as the azacycle. Significant improvements in efficacy and potency over the previously prepared(More)