Charles Mary

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Experimental studies about Leishmania resistance to metal and antifolates have pointed out that gene amplification is one of the main mechanisms of drug detoxification. Amplified genes code for adenosine triphosphate-dependent transporters (multidrug resistance and P-glycoproteins P), enzymes involved in trypanothione pathway, particularly gamma glutamyl(More)
Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that spread in many countries with a prevalence of 12 million cases. There are few available treatments and antimonials are still of major importance in the therapeutic strategies used in most endemic regions. However, resistance toward these compounds has recently emerged in areas where the replacement of these drugs is(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum is currently spreading into new foci across Europe. Leishmania infantum transmission in the Old World was reported to be strongly associated with a few specific environments. Environmental changes due to global warming or human activity were therefore incriminated in the spread of the disease.(More)
Sand flies are recognised vectors of parasites in the genus Leishmania and a number of arthropod-borne viruses, in particular viruses within the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. In southern France, Toscana phlebovirus (TOSV) is recognized as a prominent cause of summer meningitis. Since Leishmania and TOSV have a common vector (Phlebotomus(More)
OBJECTIVES This study aimed to elucidate the relative involvement of drug resistance gene copy number and overexpression in fluconazole resistance in clinical C. glabrata isolates using a population-based approach. METHODS Fluconazole resistance levels were quantified using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) via Etest method. Both gene expression(More)
During the last 20 years, molecular biology techniques have propelled the diagnosis of parasitic diseases into a new era, as regards assay speed, sensitivity, and parasite characterization. However, DNA extraction remains a critical step and should be adapted for diagnostic and epidemiological studies. The aim of this report was to document the constraints(More)
articles de recherche sur le sujet paraissent dans les revues internationales d'informatique et d'intelligence artificielle. En 1987, une revue, Computer Go, s'est spécialisée dans ce domaine. Depuis quelques années, plusieurs tournois d'ordinateurs sont organisés. Le tournoi le plus prestigieux est organisé par l'industriel taïwanais M. Ing au mois de(More)
Cryptosporidiosis is an important though underreported public health concern. Molecular tools might be helpful in improving its diagnosis. In this study, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep™ Kit (ZR) and NucliSens® easyMAG® (EM) were compared using four Cryptosporidium-seeded feces and 29 Cryptosporidium-positive stools. Thereafter, ZR was selected for prospective(More)
of morphologic and molecular diag-nostics is an absence of information on poorly described and characterized pathogens or new pathogens that have yet to be identified. No good algorithm exists to resolve these conflicts other than to explore all possibilities. The diagnosis in the described case is probably best left as a Dirofilaria species of the(More)
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