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Many aspects of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle have not been reproduced in cell culture, which has slowed research progress on this important human pathogen. Here, we describe a full-length HCV genome that replicates and produces virus particles that are infectious in cell culture (HCVcc). Replication of HCVcc was robust, producing nearly 10(5)(More)
The type I interferon response protects cells against invading viral pathogens. The cellular factors that mediate this defence are the products of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Although hundreds of ISGs have been identified since their discovery more than 25 years ago, only a few have been characterized with respect to antiviral activity. For most ISG(More)
HIV pseudotypes bearing native hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins (strain H and Con1) are infectious for the human hepatoma cell lines Huh-7 and PLC/PR5. Infectivity depends on coexpression of both E1 and E2 glycoproteins, is pH-dependent, and can be neutralized by mAbs mapping to amino acids 412-447 within E2. Cell-surface expression of one or all of(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or HHV4), a member of the human herpesvirus (HHV) family, has recently been shown to encode microRNAs (miRNAs). In contrast to most eukaryotic miRNAs, these viral miRNAs do not have close homologs in other viral genomes or in the genome of the human host. To identify other miRNA genes in pathogenic viruses, we combined a new miRNA(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer worldwide. A better understanding of the viral life cycle, including the mechanisms of entry into host cells, is needed to identify novel therapeutic targets. Although HCV entry requires the CD81 co-receptor, and other host molecules have been implicated, at least one factor critical(More)
Interaction of pathogens with cells of the immune system results in activation of inflammatory gene expression. This response, although vital for immune defence, is frequently deleterious to the host due to the exaggerated production of inflammatory proteins. The scope of inflammatory responses reflects the activation state of signalling proteins upstream(More)
Exciting progress has recently been made in understanding the replication of hepatitis C virus, a major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. The development of complete cell-culture systems should now enable the systematic dissection of the entire viral lifecycle, providing insights into the hitherto(More)
Spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in humans usually affords long-term immunity to persistent viremia and associated liver diseases. Here, we report that memory CD4+ Tcells are essential for this protection. Antibody-mediated depletion of CD4+ Tcells before reinfection of two immune chimpanzees resulted in persistent, low-level(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. The development of much needed specific antiviral therapies and an effective vaccine has been hampered by the lack of a convenient small animal model. The determinants restricting HCV tropism to human and chimpanzee hosts are unknown. Replication of the viral RNA has been demonstrated in(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication appears to be restricted to the human hepatoma cell line Huh-7, indicating that a favorable cellular environment exists within these cells. Although adaptive mutations in the HCV nonstructural proteins typically enhance the replicative capacity of subgenomic replicons in Huh-7 cells, replication can only be detected in a(More)