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Many aspects of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle have not been reproduced in cell culture, which has slowed research progress on this important human pathogen. Here, we describe a full-length HCV genome that replicates and produces virus particles that are infectious in cell culture (HCVcc). Replication of HCVcc was robust, producing nearly 10(5)(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or HHV4), a member of the human herpesvirus (HHV) family, has recently been shown to encode microRNAs (miRNAs). In contrast to most eukaryotic miRNAs, these viral miRNAs do not have close homologs in other viral genomes or in the genome of the human host. To identify other miRNA genes in pathogenic viruses, we combined a new miRNA(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health problem affecting an estimated 170 million individuals worldwide. We report the identification of multiple independent adaptive mutations that cluster in the HCV nonstructural protein NS5A and confer increased replicative ability in vitro. Among these adaptive mutations were a single amino acid(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer worldwide. A better understanding of the viral life cycle, including the mechanisms of entry into host cells, is needed to identify novel therapeutic targets. Although HCV entry requires the CD81 co-receptor, and other host molecules have been implicated, at least one factor critical(More)
The type I interferon response protects cells against invading viral pathogens. The cellular factors that mediate this defence are the products of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Although hundreds of ISGs have been identified since their discovery more than 25 years ago, only a few have been characterized with respect to antiviral activity. For most ISG(More)
Spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in humans usually affords long-term immunity to persistent viremia and associated liver diseases. Here, we report that memory CD4+ Tcells are essential for this protection. Antibody-mediated depletion of CD4+ Tcells before reinfection of two immune chimpanzees resulted in persistent, low-level(More)
CD81 has been described as a putative receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV); however, its role in HCV cell entry has not been characterized due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system. We have examined the role of CD81 in HCV glycoprotein-dependent entry by using a recently developed retroviral pseudotyping system. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)(More)
RNA structures play key roles in the replication of RNA viruses. Sequence alignment software, thermodynamic RNA folding programs, and classical comparative phylogenetic analysis were used to build models of six RNA elements in the coding region of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, NS5B. The importance of five of these elements was(More)
Two chimpanzees (Ch1535 and Ch1536) became infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) following intrahepatic inoculation with RNA transcribed from a full-length cDNA clone of the virus. Both animals were persistently infected and have been followed for 60 weeks. They showed similar responses to infection, with transient liver enzyme elevations and liver(More)
We have sequenced the virulent Asibi strain of yellow fever virus and compared this sequence to that of the 17D vaccine strain, which was derived from it. These two strains of viruses differ by more than 240 passages. We found that the two RNAs, 10,862 nucleotides long, differ at 68 nucleotide positions; these changes result in 32 amino acid differences.(More)