Charles M. Doutriaux

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—Scientists increasingly use ensemble data sets to explore relationships present in dynamic systems. Ensemble data sets combine spatio-temporal simulation results generated using multiple numerical models, sampled input conditions and perturbed parameters. While ensemble data sets are a powerful tool for mitigating uncertainty, they pose significant(More)
Two independent analyses of the same satellite-based radiative emissions data yield tropospheric temperature trends that differ by 0.1 degrees C per decade over 1979 to 2001. The troposphere warms appreciably in one satellite data set, while the other data set shows little overall change. These satellite data uncertainties are important in studies seeking(More)
The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations and is consistent with basic theory. On multidecadal time scales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations,(More)
[1] We compare global‐scale changes in satellite estimates of the temperature of the lower troposphere (TLT) with model simulations of forced and unforced TLT changes. While previous work has focused on a single period of record, we select analysis timescales ranging from 10 to 32 years, and then compare all possible observed TLT trends on each timescale(More)
The apparent warming of Earth's surface during the 20 th century may be biased by large changes in the coverage of surface temperature measurements since 1900. We investigate this issue using climate model simulations. By imposing observed coverage changes on simulated surface temperatures, we obtain estimates of 20 th-century temperature-change for both(More)
Climate scientists have made substantial progress in understanding Earth's climate system, particularly at global and continental scales. Climate research is now focused on understanding climate changes over wider ranges of time and space scales. These efforts are generating ultra-scale data sets at very high spatial resolution. An insightful analysis in(More)
Being able to incorporate, inspect, and analyze data with newly developed technologies, diagnostics, and visualizations in an easy and flexible way has been a longstanding challenge for scientists interested in understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic empirical assessment of multi-model climate output. To improve research ability and productivity, these(More)
400 CSF electrophoreses were performed on Black West Africans (Ivory Coast) with inflammatory infections of the nervous system. In the normal state, the CSF of the Black African contains a higher concentration of gamma-globulins than the European (15.8% compared to 8--10%). This study permits us to confirm indirectly the classical idea of the extreme rarity(More)
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