Charles M. Alexander

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Although the individual components of the metabolic syndrome are clearly associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), we wanted to quantify the increased prevalence of CHD among people with metabolic syndrome. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) was used to categorize adults over 50 years of age by(More)
AIM The aetiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) is complex, and many risk factors for AP are shared by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, few have assessed risk factors for AP specifically in T2DM patients. METHODS Patients in the General Practice Research Database (2 984 755, 5.0% with T2DM) were used to estimate incidence of AP for(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the direct costs of care before and after onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) for patients with and without diabetes based on analyses of retrospective healthcare claims data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients with onset of ESRD between January 1998 though June 2002 were identified based on use of dialysis, renal(More)
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), both diagnosed (history of) and undiagnosed (by fasting glucose [FG] only), as well as impaired FG have an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), compared with those with normal FG. Elevations in FG levels, even in normoglycemic subjects (<110 mg/dl), may be significantly related to CHD morbidity and mortality.(More)
In 1997, the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus lowered the fasting criterion for diabetes from 140 (7.8 mmol/l) to 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) (1). This decision was made to allow the prevalence of diabetes diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations to equal the prevalence of diabetes diagnosed by 2-h values(More)
AIMS To describe initial achievement of glycaemic targets and subsequent hyperglycaemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes managed with oral agent monotherapy in UK primary care from 1998 to 2004. METHODS Electronic medical records of patients initiating metformin (n = 3362) or a sulphonylurea agent (n = 3070) in 290 UK primary care practices were retrieved(More)
OBJECTIVE Epidemiological studies have shown that the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in diabetic patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD) is comparable to the risk of MI in patients with CVD. We used a validated Markov model to compare the long-term costs and benefits of treating dyslipidemia in diabetic patients without CVD versus treating CVD(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the within-trial effect of losartan and conventional antihypertensive therapy (CT) compared with placebo and CT on the economic cost associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Reduction of End Points in Type 2 Diabetes With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study was a multinational(More)
AIM To examine the impact of diabetes duration, chronic pancreatitis and other factors on pancreatic cancer risk. METHODS This retrospective cohort study using the UK General Practice Research Database compared pancreatic cancer incidence and risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) versus patients without diabetes. Multivariate Cox(More)
CONTEXT In the Treat Angina with Aggrastat and Determine Cost of Therapy with an Invasive or Conservative Strategy (TACTICS)-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 18 trial, patients with either unstable angina or non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI) treated with the platelet glycoprotein (Gp IIb/IIIa) inhibitor tirofiban had a(More)