Charles L. Limoli

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Hippocampal precursors retain the capacity to proliferate and differentiate throughout life, and their progeny, immature neurons, can undergo neurogenesis, a process believed to be important in maintaining the cognitive health of an organism. A variety of stresses including irradiation have been shown to deplete neural precursor cells, an effect that(More)
The tolerance of normal brain tissues limits the radiation dose that can be delivered safely during cranial radiotherapy, and one of the potential complications that can arise involves cognitive impairment. Extensive laboratory data have appeared recently showing that hippocampal neurogenesis is significantly impacted by irradiation and that such changes(More)
Therapeutic irradiation of the brain can cause a progressive cognitive dysfunction that may involve defects in neurogenesis. In an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced stem cell dysfunction, neural precursor cells isolated from the adult rat hippocampus were analyzed for acute (0-24 h) and chronic (3-33 days) changes in apoptosis(More)
A novel method is used to introduce double-strand breaks into cellular DNA containing controlled levels of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Chinese hamster V79 cells substituted with BrdU are treated with Hoechst dye #33258 and then exposed to UVA light. Using neutral elution (pH 7.2) the yield of DNA double-strand breaks is found to be linearly dependent on(More)
UV-induced replication arrest in the xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) but not in normal cells leads to an accumulation of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex and phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX) in large nuclear foci at sites of stalled replication forks. These complexes have been shown to signal the presence of DNA damage, in particular, double-strand(More)
Chromosomal destabilization is one end point of the more general phenomenon of genomic instability. We previously established that chromosomal instability can manifest in clones derived from single progenitor cells several generations after X-irradiation. To understand the potential relationship between chromosomal destabilization and the other end points(More)
Genomic instability is the increased rate of acquisition of alterations in the mammalian genome, and includes such diverse biological endpoints as chromosomal destabilization, aneuploidy, micronucleus formation, sister chromatid exchange, gene mutation and amplification, variations in colony size, reduced plating efficiency, and cellular transformation.(More)
Ionizing radiation induces chronic metabolic oxidative stress and a mutator phenotype in hamster fibroblasts that is mediated by H(2)O(2), but the intracellular source of H(2)O(2) is not well defined. To determine the role of mitochondria in the radiation-induced mutator phenotype, end points of mitochondrial function were determined in unstable (CS-9 and(More)
As NASA prepares for the first manned spaceflight to Mars, questions have surfaced concerning the potential for increased risks associated with exposure to the spectrum of highly energetic nuclei that comprise galactic cosmic rays. Animal models have revealed an unexpected sensitivity of mature neurons in the brain to charged particles found in space.(More)
Cranial irradiation remains a frontline treatment for brain cancer, but also leads to normal tissue damage. Although low-dose irradiation (≤10 Gy) causes minimal histopathologic change, it can elicit variable degrees of cognitive dysfunction that are associated with the depletion of neural stem cells. To decipher the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced(More)