Charles Kent Osborne

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PURPOSE To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists convened an international Expert Panel that(More)
BACKGROUND Tumorigenic breast cancer cells that express high levels of CD44 and low or undetectable levels of CD24 (CD44(>)/CD24(>/low)) may be resistant to chemotherapy and therefore responsible for cancer relapse. These tumorigenic cancer cells can be isolated from breast cancer biopsies and propagated as mammospheres in vitro. In this study, we aimed to(More)
PURPOSE Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a newer technique for assessing the estrogen receptor (ER) status of breast cancers, with the potential to overcome many of the shortcomings associated with the traditional ligand-binding assay (LBA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of ER status determination by IHC, compared with LBA, to predict(More)
BACKGROUND Patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen whose tumors express high levels of both HER2/neu (HER2) and the estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator AIB1 often develop tamoxifen resistance. We used a breast cancer model system with high expression of AIB1 and HER2 to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying this resistance. METHODS MCF-7 breast(More)
BACKGROUND AIB1 (SRC-3) is an estrogen receptor (ER) coactivator that, when overexpressed in cultured cells, can reduce the antagonist activity of tamoxifen-bound ERs. Signaling through the HER-2 receptor pathway activates AIB1 by phosphorylation. To determine whether high AIB1 expression alone or together with HER-2 reduces the effectiveness of tamoxifen(More)
The estrogen receptor (ER) pathway plays a pivotal role in breast cancer development and progression. Endocrine therapy to block the ER pathway is highly effective, but its usefulness is limited by common intrinsic and acquired resistance. Multiple mechanisms responsible for endocrine resistance have been proposed and include deregulation of various(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, prognosis and survival after the diagnosis of breast cancer is poorer among black patients and, to a lesser extent, among Hispanic patients, compared with white patients. Patients who are black or Hispanic have been reported to present with higher stage or more advanced disease. Even after adjusting for stage, however,(More)
BACKGROUND The 21-gene recurrence score assay is prognostic for women with node-negative, oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer treated with tamoxifen. A low recurrence score predicts little benefit of chemotherapy. For node-positive breast cancer, we investigated whether the recurrence score was prognostic in women treated with tamoxifen alone and(More)
Several lines of evidence indicate that the nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) complex imposes ligand dependence on transcriptional activation by the retinoic acid receptor and mediates the inhibitory effects of estrogen receptor antagonists, such as tamoxifen, suppressing a constitutive N-terminal, Creb-binding protein/coactivator complex-dependent(More)
Not all breast cancers respond to tamoxifen, and many develop resistance despite initial benefit. We used an in vivo model of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer (MCF-7 xenografts) to investigate mechanisms of this resistance and develop strategies to circumvent it. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2, which were barely detected in(More)