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The vast majority of neostriatal neurons and intrinsic intrastriatal synapses are GABAergic, the latter arising from axon collaterals of spiny projection neurons and from GABAergic interneurons. An important feature of the functional organization of the neostriatum has long been assumed to be the existence of a widespread lateral inhibitory network mediated(More)
Most neurons in the neostriatum are GABAergic spiny projection neurons with extensive local axon collaterals innervating principally other spiny projection neurons. The other source of GABAergic inputs to spiny neurons derives from a small number of interneurons, of which the best characterized are the parvalbumin-containing, fast-spiking interneurons.(More)
There are two distinct inhibitory GABAergic circuits in the neostriatum. The feedforward circuit consists of a relatively small population of GABAergic interneurons that receives excitatory input from the neocortex and exerts monosynaptic inhibition onto striatal spiny projection neurons. The feedback circuit comprises the numerous spiny projection neurons(More)
Recent anatomical, physiological and computer modeling studies have revealed that oscillatory processes at the levels of single neurons and neuronal networks in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and external globus pallidus (GPe) are associated with the operation of the basal ganglia in health and in Parkinson's disease (PD). Autonomous oscillation of STN and(More)
Dopaminergic neurons of the ventral midbrain fire high-frequency bursts when animals are presented with unexpected rewards, or stimuli that predict reward. To identify the afferents that can initiate bursting and establish therapeutic strategies for diseases affected by altered bursting, a mechanistic understanding of bursting is essential. Our results show(More)
Changes in spontaneous activity within the cortex recognized by subthreshold fluctuations of the membrane potential of cortical neurons modified the response of cortical neurons to sensory stimuli. Sensory stimuli occurring in the hyperpolarized "down" state evoked a larger depolarization and were more effective in evoking action potentials than stimuli(More)
The responsiveness of rhythmically firing neurons to synaptic inputs is characterized by their phase-response curve (PRC), which relates how weak somatic perturbations affect the timing of the next action potential. The shape of the somatic PRC is an important determinant of collective network dynamics. Here we study theoretically and experimentally the(More)
The spontaneous firing patterns of striatal cholinergic interneurons are sculpted by potassium currents that give rise to prominent afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs). Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel currents contribute to action potential (AP) repolarization; small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel currents generate an(More)
Striatal cholinergic interneurons discharge rhythmically in two patterns associated with different afterhyperpolarization timescales, each dictated by a different calcium-dependent potassium current. Single spiking depends on a medium-duration afterhyperpolarization (mAHP) generated by rapid SK currents that are associated with N-type calcium channels.(More)
During sensorimotor learning, tonically active neurons (TANs) in the striatum acquire bursts and pauses in their firing based on the salience of the stimulus. Striatal cholinergic interneurons display tonic intrinsic firing, even in the absence of synaptic input, that resembles TAN activity seen in vivo. However, whether there are other striatal neurons(More)