Charles J Russell

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Although there is increasing evidence that virus-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses play an important role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication in vivo, only scarce CTL data are available for the ethnic populations currently most affected by the epidemic. In this study, we examined the CD8(+)-T-cell responses in(More)
Lipid raft microdomains are enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol and function as platforms for signal transduction and as the site of budding of several enveloped viruses, including influenza virus. The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein, which mediates both viral-cell attachment and membrane fusion, associates intrinsically with lipid(More)
While the molecular mechanism of membrane fusion by the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein has been studied extensively in vitro, the role of acid-dependent HA protein activation in virus replication, pathogenesis, and transmission in vivo has not been characterized. To investigate the biological significance of the pH of activation of the HA(More)
The projection regions of electroreceptor and mechanical lateral line afferents in electric fish of the mormyridae family are described. Electroreceptor afferents from the posterior dorsal skin run in the dorsal branch of the posterior lateral line nerve. Electroreceptor afferents from ventral skin and mechanical lateral line afferents and efferents run in(More)
Peptides derived from heptad repeat regions adjacent to the fusion peptide and transmembrane domains of many viral fusion proteins form stable helical bundles and inhibit fusion specifically. Paramyxovirus SV5 fusion (F) protein-mediated fusion and its inhibition by the peptides N-1 and C-1 were analyzed. The temperature dependence of fusion by F suggests(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype continue to threaten agriculture and human health. Here, we use biochemistry and x-ray crystallography to reveal how amino-acid variations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein contribute to the pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza virus in chickens. HA proteins from highly pathogenic (HP) A/chicken/Hong(More)
The fusion (F) protein of the paramyxovirus SV5 strain W3A causes syncytium formation without coexpression of the SV5 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein, whereas the F protein of the SV5 strain WR requires coexpression of HN for fusion activity. SV5 strains W3A and WR differ by three amino acid residues at positions 22, 443, and 516. The W3A F(More)
Pandemic influenza viruses pose a significant threat to public health worldwide. In a recent Nature paper, Taubenberger et al. (2005) now report remarkable similarities between the polymerase genes of the influenza virus that caused the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic and those of avian influenza viruses. Meanwhile, Tumpey et al. (2005) reporting in Science(More)
In the present study we determined the antiviral effect of amantadine against influenza A/Netherlands/219/03 (H7N7) virus in cell culture and in a mouse model. Amantadine at concentrations <100 muM failed to inhibit virus replication in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. When orally administered to mice for 5 days, amantadine at 15 mg kg(-1) day(-1)(More)
The influenza A virus (IAV) HA protein must be activated by host cells proteases in order to prime the molecule for fusion. Consequently, the availability of activating proteases and the susceptibility of HA to protease activity represents key factors in facilitating virus infection. As such, understanding the intricacies of HA cleavage by various proteases(More)