Charles J. Hackett

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Adjuvants, substances included in many vaccines in order to improve immune responses, are challenging to develop and license because adjuvant compounds that stimulate strong protective immunity also frequently induce significant toxicity. Adjuvant design and development has until recently been largely empirical; but with the current knowledge that most(More)
Recent surveys found that an increasing number of parents are concerned that infants receive too many vaccines. Implicit in this concern is that the infant's immune system is inadequately developed to handle vaccines safely or that multiple vaccines may overwhelm the immune system. In this review, we will examine the following: 1) the ontogeny of the active(More)
Anecdotal case reports and uncontrolled observational studies in the medical literature claim that vaccines cause chronic diseases such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, chronic arthritis, and diabetes. Several biological mechanisms have been proposed to explain how vaccines might cause allergic or autoimmune diseases. For example, allergic diseases might be(More)
There have been enormous advances in the field of immunology over the past 3 decades, and those advances have had a positive effect on many subspecialties of medicine. Opportunities for even more notable advances remain. However, present and projected budget constraints for the National Institutes of Health have created formidable challenges. This(More)
  • Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • 1963
A close relationship between the four human treponematoses is suggested by their clinical and epidemiological characteristics and by such limited knowledge of the treponemes as there is at present. No treponeme of this group (except for that of the rabbit) is known other than in man, but the human treponemes probably arose long ago from an animal infection.(More)
Biodefense strategies require protection against a broad and largely unforeseen spectrum of pathogens--the forte of innate immune system defenses--that have evolved over millennia to function within moments of encountering either ancient or newly emerging pathogens. Although constitutive, the innate immune system is activated by the presence of microbes or(More)
The purposes of a yaws mass campaign are to eradicate yaws and to improve the environmental sanitation and standard of living of the people so that its re-introduction will be impossible. In a mass treatment campaign the importance of latent cases and contacts in maintaining the disease must be taken into account. The treatment of this group of the(More)