Charles J. Epstein

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Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is increasingly utilized for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Performing CMA and G-banded karyotyping on every patient substantially increases the total cost of genetic testing. The(More)
Although many genetic disorders are characterized by cognitive failure during development, there is little insight into the neurobiological basis for the abnormalities. Down syndrome (DS), a disorder caused by the presence of three copies of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21), is characterized by impairments in learning and memory attributable to dysfunction of the(More)
A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called "Down syndrome region" of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of(More)
During development, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons either cross or avoid the midline at the optic chiasm. In Drosophila, the Slit protein regulates midline axon crossing through repulsion. To determine the role of Slit proteins in RGC axon guidance, we disrupted Slit1 and Slit2, two of three known mouse Slit genes. Mice defective in either gene alone(More)
The Sod2 gene for Mn–superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an intramitochondrial free radical scavenging enzyme that is the first line of defense against superoxide produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation, was inactivated by homologous recombination. Homozygous mutant mice die within the first 10 days of life with a dilated cardiomyopathy, accumulation(More)
Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes to cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS). We used Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models of DS to show that the increased dose of the amyloid precursor protein gene, App, acts to markedly decrease NGF retrograde transport and cause degeneration of BFCNs. NGF(More)
To study the pathogenesis of central nervous system abnormalities in Down syndrome (DS), we have analyzed a new genetic model of DS, the partial trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn) mouse. Ts65Dn mice have an extra copy of the distal aspect of mouse chromosome 16, a segment homologous to human chromosome 21 that contains much of the genetic material responsible for the DS(More)
Age-related degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. With aging, the partial trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn) mouse model of Down's syndrome exhibited reductions in BFCN size and number and regressive changes in the hippocampal terminal fields of these neurons with respect to(More)
Mice deficient in CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) showed no overt abnormalities during development and early adulthood, but had a reduced lifespan and increased incidence of neoplastic changes in the liver. Greater than 70% of Sod1−/− mice developed liver nodules that were either nodular hyperplasia or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Cross-sectional(More)
Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is a water-selective transporting protein expressed in epithelial cells of serous acini in salivary gland. We generated AQP5 null mice by targeted gene disruption. The genotype distribution from intercross of founder AQP5 heterozygous mice was 70:69:29 wild-type:heterozygote:knockout, indicating impaired prenatal survival of the null(More)