Charles Hetru

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Social insects are able to mount both group-level and individual defences against pathogens. Here we focus on individual defences, by presenting a genome-wide analysis of immunity in a social insect, the honey bee Apis mellifera. We present honey bee models for each of four signalling pathways associated with immunity, identifying plausible orthologues for(More)
We have identified 242 Anopheles gambiae genes from 18 gene families implicated in innate immunity and have detected marked diversification relative to Drosophila melanogaster. Immune-related gene families involved in recognition, signal modulation, and effector systems show a marked deficit of orthologs and excessive gene expansions, possibly reflecting(More)
A hallmark of the potent, multifaceted antimicrobial defence of Drosophila melanogaster is the challenge-induced synthesis of several families of antimicrobial peptides by cells in the fat body. The basic mechanisms of recognition of various types of microbial infections by the adult fly are now understood, often in great detail. We have further gained(More)
Tribolium castaneum is a species of Coleoptera, the largest and most diverse order of all eukaryotes. Components of the innate immune system are hardly known in this insect, which is in a key phylogenetic position to inform us about genetic innovations accompanying the evolution of holometabolous insects. We have annotated immunity-related genes and(More)
The response of drosophila to bacterial and fungal infections involves two signaling pathways, Toll and Imd, which both activate members of the transcription factor NF-κB family. Here we have studied the global transcriptional response of flies to infection with drosophila C virus. Viral infection induced a set of genes distinct from those regulated by the(More)
Oligonucleotide DNA microarrays were used for a genome-wide analysis of immune-challenged Drosophila infected with Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria, or with fungi. Aside from the expression of an established set of immune defense genes, a significant number of previously unseen immune-induced genes were found. Genes of particular interest include(More)
Phagocytosis is a complex, evolutionarily conserved process that plays a central role in host defense against infection. We have identified a predicted transmembrane protein, Eater, which is involved in phagocytosis in Drosophila. Transcriptional silencing of the eater gene in a macrophage cell line led to a significant reduction in the binding and(More)
Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large(More)
Antimicrobial peptides appear to be ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. During the past 15 years a multitude of these peptides have been isolated largely from insects. In spite of great differences in size, amino acid composition and structure, most of the(More)
We have isolated from the blood of immune-challenged and untreated mussels (Mytilus edulis) antibacterial and antifungal peptides. We have characterized two isoforms of a novel 34-residue, cysteine-rich, peptide with potent bactericidal activity and partially characterized a novel 6.2-kDa antifungal peptide containing 12 cysteines. We report the presence of(More)